NIOS Class 10th Home Science (216): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024

(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrolment numbers, Al name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words

(a) Identify any two natural fibres from your surroundings. Why is it advisable to use garments made from natural fibers?.

Answer- our  can identify two natural fibres around you, such as bamboo, cotton, linen, jute, wool, silk, and more.

1. The recommendation to use clothing made from natural fibres is given because they are made from natural materials that are more pure and healthy for our skin. These fabrics provide freedom to the skin and offer comfort and breathability. Natural fibbers are known to maintain the right temperature, keeping you cool in summers and warm in winters.

2. Additionally, these fabrics are more environmentally friendly as they are produced with less pollution and contribute to a sustainable and eco-friendly fashion industry.

(bMention any two differences between plain weave and twill weave in a tabular form

Answer­- These are two primary weaving techniques used in fabric production, each with its unique characteristics and applications.

Main Characteristic

Plain Weave

Twill Weave

Weaving Pattern

Over one, under one

Over one, under two or more


Even and symmetrical pattern

Diagonal or herringbone pattern


Less durable compared to twill

More durable due to tight weave


Smooth and flat surface

Textured and raised surface


Common in everyday fabrics

Used in heavy, sturdy fabrics


Cotton, silk, linen fabrics

Denim, gabardine, herringbone

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

a) Sheena’s foot accidently touched a naked wire from the socket and she got an electric shock. State any two appropriate ways for the safe use of electricity at home.

Answer­- Two appropriate safety measures for safe electrical usage in the home are:

1. ELCB and MCB Switches: Use Electrical Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) and Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) switches on all electrical points in the house. These switches allow you to easily turn off and on the electricity when needed, ensuring safety and preventing electrical hazards.

2. Grounding and Earthing: Properly ground the home’s electrical system to reduce electrical potential and prevent electrical leakages. This safety measure helps ensure that any electrical faults do not pose a threat to people’s health.

These safety measures are essential for safe and secure electrical usage in the home.

b) Critically examine your surroundings and identify any four reasons for suffocation and amongst children and adults.

Answer­-  Identify four potential causes of shortness of breath (dyspnea) in children and adults in your environment:

1. Noise Pollution: High levels of noise and pollution in the environment can lead to stress and anxiety, potentially causing shortness of breath in both children and adults.

2. Air Pollution: Elevated air pollution levels, especially in urban areas, can contribute to respiratory problems and shortness of breath in individuals.

3. Smoking: Exposure to secondhand smoke or active smoking can increase the risk of respiratory issues, leading to shortness of breath.

4. Allergies or Respiratory Conditions: Allergies or pre-existing respiratory conditions, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can lead to shortness of breath when triggered by allergens or environmental factors.

These are common factors that may contribute to shortness of breath in both children and adults, and it is essential to address these issues to maintain respiratory health.

3.  Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Baby Mridula is 8 months old. Mention any two characteristic features each of growth and development of children of her age.

Answer­–   Baby Mrudula is now 8 months old. Mention two specific aspects of growth and development in children of her age:

1.       Motor Development: At 8 months of age, children experience rapid motor development. They are learning to sit, stand, and overcome the challenges of mobility.

2.       Feeding Habits: Children at this age are starting to develop the habit of consuming solid foods and exploring various tastes and textures. It’s an important phase in their nutritional development.

These are two significant characteristics that can be observed in the growth and development of children at 8 months of age. It’s a time when they are making progress in various areas of their development.

(b) “Development is correlated”. Justify the statement by giving any two suitable examples.

Answer­-  Education and Employment: Good education leads to better employment opportunities. When an individual receives quality education, they have a higher chance of securing better jobs, which, in turn, leads to improved financial and social development. Education and employment are correlated as they mutually influence each other.

Health and Development: Good health encourages an individual’s social and economic development. If a person is not in good health, it can affect various aspects of their development, as health plays a vital role in every sphere of life. Therefore, health and development are closely correlated.

These examples illustrate how development is interconnected, and various factors influence and support each other in the overall development of an individual or a society.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

a) Health is the proper functioning of both body and mind. Define “Health” According to World Health Organisation (WHO). Enlist two characteristic features each of good physical health, good mental health and good social health.

Answer­–   The World Health Organization (WHO) defines “health” as not merely the absence of illness or infirmity, but a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. This comprehensive definition underscores that health encompasses more than just physical fitness; it encompasses the holistic well-being of an individual.

Good physical health involves aspects such as a strong immune system, a balanced diet, regular exercise, and the absence of diseases. Mental health encompasses emotional well-being, psychological stability, and the ability to cope with life’s challenges. Social health involves the quality of relationships, social support, and a sense of belonging in the community.

The interconnectedness of these three dimensions of health is evident. For instance, a person with good physical health is more likely to have better mental health and be socially active. Conversely, poor physical health can lead to mental health issues and social isolation.

b) Define Immunity. How is natural immunity different from acquired immunity? Mention two ways by which we can acquire immunity.

Answer­–  Immunity is the body’s ability to defend itself against harmful pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, to prevent or limit infections and diseases.

Natural immunity is the type of immunity that a person is born with, and it provides basic protection against certain pathogens. It includes physical barriers like the skin and mucous membranes, as well as non-specific immune responses like fever and inflammation. Natural immunity is not pathogen-specific and provides general protection.

Active immunity: This occurs when the body’s immune system is exposed to a pathogen, either through infection or vaccination. The immune system produces antibodies and immune memory, providing long-lasting protection.

Passive immunity: This is temporary immunity acquired from another source, such as through the transfer of antibodies from a mother to a newborn or through the administration of pre-formed antibodies, as in certain medical treatments.

Two ways to acquire immunity are:

Vaccination: Vaccines contain harmless forms of pathogens or their proteins, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and memory cells. This provides immunity without causing the disease.

Prior infection: Recovery from a previous infection with a specific pathogen can lead to acquired immunity against that pathogen, as the immune system develops memory and antibodies specific to it.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

  a) Tarun is a student of class 12th. He wants to pursue his career as a Engineer. Help him to identify the four steps of management to use his resources effectively to achieve his goal.

Answer– To achieve his goal of becoming an engineer, Tarun can apply the principles of management to effectively utilize his resources. Here are four steps he can follow:

Planning: Tarun should begin by setting clear and achievable goals. He needs to identify the specific engineering field he’s interested in, such as civil, mechanical, or electrical engineering. Then, he can create a detailed plan outlining the necessary academic qualifications, entrance exams, and college selection criteria. This plan will serve as a roadmap for his academic and career journey.

Organizing: Tarun should organize his resources efficiently. This includes selecting the right courses, textbooks, and study materials to excel in his studies. He can also identify mentors or teachers who can guide him in his chosen field. Moreover, he should manage his time effectively to balance academics, extracurricular activities, and personal life.

Leading: Leadership skills are crucial in achieving any goal. Tarun should develop effective communication and teamwork skills, as engineers often work in multidisciplinary teams. He can join engineering clubs, participate in group projects, and engage in activities that enhance his leadership abilities.

Controlling: Tarun should continuously evaluate his progress and make necessary adjustments. Regular self-assessment, mock tests, and seeking feedback from teachers and mentors will help him stay on the right track. He should adapt to changing circumstances and remain committed to his goal.

(b) (i) Resources are limited. What four guidelines will you suggest to your community to use resources efficiently ?

Answer- Efficient resource utilization is crucial for the sustainability of communities. Here are four guidelines to help a community make the most of its limited resources:

ReduceReuse, Recycle: Encourage community members to adopt the mantra of “reduce, reuse, and recycle.” Reduce unnecessary consumption, reuse items when possible, and recycle materials like paper, glass, and plastics. Setting up recycling programs and waste segregation systems can help minimize resource wastage.

Energy Conservation: Promote energy-efficient practices such as turning off lights and appliances when not in use, using energy-efficient appliances, and upgrading to renewable energy sources like solar panels. Conduct energy audits in public buildings and homes to identify areas for improvement.

Water Management: Implement water-saving techniques like rainwater harvesting, low-flow fixtures, and efficient irrigation systems. Raise awareness about the importance of water conservation and the responsible use of this precious resource.

Community Engagement: Foster a sense of community responsibility and participation in resource conservation. Organize workshops, awareness campaigns, and educational programs to teach sustainable practices. Create community gardens, composting systems, and shared resources, like tool libraries, to reduce individual resource consumption.

By following these guidelines, communities can work together to maximize resource efficiency, reduce waste, and ensure a more sustainable future for all.

(ii) Discuss the misuse of any two resources in your own community and suggest ways to prevent it.

Answer- 1. Water Misuse:

Misuse: Excessive water consumption, wasteful practices like leaving taps running, and inefficient irrigation methods in gardening and agriculture.

Prevention: Promote water conservation through public awareness campaigns, fix leaky pipes and faucets, implement water-saving technologies, and encourage the use of rainwater harvesting systems for gardens and agriculture.

2. Energy Misuse:

Misuse: Leaving lights and appliances on when not in use, using outdated, energy-inefficient appliances, and relying heavily on non-renewable energy sources.

Prevention: Educate the community about energy-efficient habits, invest in energy-saving appliances, support the adoption of renewable energy sources, and conduct energy audits to identify areas for improvement.

By addressing these common resource misuses through community education and adopting sustainable technologies, communities can reduce their ecological footprint and work towards a more sustainable future.

6. Answer any one of the following questions in detail.

(i) Karuna and Taruna are identical twins. Karuna is brought up in a village by her mother and Taruna is brought up in a urban setting by her father. Analyse any three important aspects of development of both siblings in a tabular form.

Answer- Here’s a tabular analysis of the development of Karuna and Taruna, who are identical twins, raised in different environments:

Aspect of Development

Karuna (Village)

Taruna (Urban)

Physical Development

Karuna may have a more physically active lifestyle, possibly engaging in farming or outdoor chores. She may have exposure to organic and locally sourced food.

Taruna may have access to better healthcare facilities, a more sedentary lifestyle, and potentially processed or fast food. Her growth might be influenced by urban pollution.

Cognitive Development

Karuna’s education might be limited, possibly with fewer educational resources. However, she may develop problem-solving skills in an agricultural setting.

Taruna is more likely to have access to quality education, libraries, and educational technologies. She may excel in academics and have access to diverse career opportunities.

Social and Emotional Development

Karuna’s social circle might be small and closely-knit, with strong community bonds. Her emotional development could be grounded in traditional values.

Taruna may have a larger and more diverse social circle but may face challenges related to urban stress and peer pressure. Her emotional development may be influenced by modern social dynamics.

Both environments have their advantages and challenges, impacting the overall development of the twins. Karuna might excel in physical and problem-solving skills, while Taruna may have greater access to educational and career opportunities. However, their emotional development would be influenced by the distinct social settings they grow up in.

(ii) In your opinion what is more important to determine the children’s personality and individual differences and Why?

Answer- Determining children’s personality and individual differences is a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and social factors. Both nature (genetics) and nurture (environment and upbringing) play critical roles in shaping a child’s personality. It’s challenging to prioritize one over the other as both are highly influential, and their relative importance can vary from one individual to another. Here’s why each is significant:

Nature (Genetics):

Genetic factors provide the foundation for an individual’s temperament, intelligence, and susceptibility to various traits and behaviors.

They can set the broad framework for an individual’s personality, including their predisposition to certain psychological conditions or tendencies.

Nurture (Environment and Upbringing):

Environmental factors, including family, culture, education, and social experiences, shape a child’s personality and behavior.

Early childhood experiences and socialization profoundly impact a child’s values, beliefs, and social skills.

In summary, both nature and nurture are essential in determining children’s personality and individual differences. It’s the interaction between genetic predispositions and environmental influences that makes each child unique. Understanding this interplay can help parents, caregivers, and educators provide the best support and guidance for a child’s development.

(b) Each nutrient has a specific role in keeping us healthy. If we start eating the food with missing nutrients, symptoms of the disease will start appearing.

(i) Write any two functions of the following nutrients that are important to sustain life. Dietary fiber, water, vitamin A

Here are two important functions of the mentioned nutrients that are crucial to sustaining life:

Dietary Fiber:

Digestive Health: Dietary fiber, primarily found in plant-based foods, supports proper digestion. It adds bulk to stool, preventing constipation and promoting regular bowel movements. Fiber also helps in the prevention of conditions like diverticulitis and hemorrhoids.

Weight Management: Fiber promotes a feeling of fullness and helps control appetite, making it an important nutrient in managing body weight and preventing overeating.


Hydration: Water is essential for maintaining proper bodily functions. It helps regulate body temperature, transports nutrients and oxygen to cells, and removes waste products. Staying adequately hydrated is crucial for overall health and survival.

Metabolism: Water is involved in various metabolic processes, including those responsible for breaking down and utilizing nutrients from food. Proper hydration ensures these processes occur efficiently.

(ii) Make a diet plan for yourself in terms of inclusion of food groups and balanced diet in a tabular form.

Answer- Certainly! Here’s a sample diet plan for a day, organized in terms of food groups for a balanced diet:


Food Group

Food Choices



Scrambled eggs, Greek yogurt

Whole Grains

Whole wheat toast, oatmeal

Fruits and Vegetables

Banana, spinach (in eggs), berries (in yogurt)

Healthy Fats

Avocado slices



Almonds, Greek yogurt


Apple slices



Grilled chicken breast, tofu, chickpeas

Whole Grains

Brown rice, whole wheat wrap


Mixed salad (lettuce, tomato, cucumber, bell peppers)

Healthy Fats

Olive oil (for dressing)


Dairy or Alternatives

Cheese cubes, almond milk

Whole Grains

Whole grain crackers





Salmon, lentils, edamame

Whole Grains



Steamed broccoli, carrots, green beans

Healthy Fats

Olive oil (for cooking)


Dairy or Alternatives

Greek yogurt with honey and nuts


Sliced strawberries


Dark chocolate square

Remember, this is just a sample plan. It’s important to customize it based on individual dietary preferences, nutritional needs, and any specific dietary requirements or restrictions. Consulting a registered dietitian or nutritionist for personalized guidance is always a good idea.