(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.
(ii) Write your name, enrolment numbers, Al name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.
1. Answer any one of the following questions about 40-60 words.
(a) What are the developmental tasks associated with each stage of human development and how to they determine a person’s successful progression to the next stage.
Answer: Human development stages, like Erikson’s psychosocial stages, involve tasks for each age. At 14, your task is identity vs. role confusion, exploring your identity. Success means a strong self-concept and smoother transition to adulthood. This fosters personal growth and prepares you for future stages.
(b) What are the main reasons for school dropout, stagnation and wastage? What efforts are being made to decrease the school dropout rate in India?
Answer: The main reasons for school dropout, stagnation, and wastage include lack of access to quality education, economic hardship, family pressures, and social issues. Efforts to reduce school dropout rates in India involve improving the relevance and quality of education, implementing various educational policies and programs, and providing financial incentives to encourage children to stay in school.
Initiatives like the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and scholarships aim to make education more accessible and attractive, thus addressing the dropout issue and promoting higher enrollment and retention rates.
2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.
(a) Practice the eight steps of Yoga as described by Patanjali. Paste your images practicing six different yoga steps.
i. Yama (Moral Code): Practice non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and non-greed.
ii. Niyama (Self-Purification): Maintain cleanliness, contentment, austerity, study, and surrender to a higher power.
iii. Asana (Physical Postures): Perform yoga postures to improve physical health and flexibility.
iv. Pranayama (Breath Control): Control and regulate your breath for increased vitality and mental focus.
v. Pratyahara (Withdrawal of Senses): Learn to detach from sensory distractions.
vi. Dharana (Concentration): Concentrate the mind on a single object or thought.
vii. Dhyana (Meditation): Meditate on a chosen object or focus on self-realization.
viii. Samadhi (Union with the Divine): Attain a state of oneness with the universal consciousness, realizing the true self.
By practicing these steps in different yoga phases, you can progress toward spiritual growth and self-realization.
(b) What are the steps to making a good career choice and what are the common myths to avoid while making a career choice?
Answer: To make a good career choice:
· Self-Assessment: Examine your interests, skills, and goals.
· Awareness: Stay informed about various career options.
· Educational Plan: Plan for quality education and training.
· Training: Acquire relevant skills and qualifications.
· Time Investment: Take your time to choose without pressure.
Myths to avoid:
· Money is Everything: Money is just a part of a career, not everything.
· Pressure Overrides Interest: Follow your interests despite family or societal pressures.
· Business is the Only Option: There are diverse career options beyond business.
· Once Chosen, Stick Forever: Be open to change as career paths can evolve.
· Only Teacher or Engineer: Choose based on your interests, not stereotypes.
3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.
(a) What are the benefits of practicing yoga for our studies, relationships, work, and heath?
Answer: Benefits of practicing yoga:
Improved concentration and focus.
Reduced stress and anxiety, enhancing learning abilities.
Better emotional regulation and empathy.
Enhanced communication and patience.
Increased productivity and creativity.
Stress management for a balanced work-life.
Enhanced physical fitness and flexibility.
Boosted immune system and overall well-being.
Yoga helps create a harmonious balance in various aspects of life, supporting physical, mental, and emotional health.Top of Form.
(b) What are the ways to promote positive emotions and how do they benefit mental health and well-being?
Answer: Ways to promote positive emotions:
i. Gratitude: Practice gratitude by acknowledging the good in your life.
ii. Mindfulness: Engage in mindfulness exercises to stay in the present moment.
iii. Social Connections: Build and nurture positive relationships.
iv. Physical Activity: Exercise releases endorphins, boosting mood.
v. Hobbies: Pursue interests and hobbies for enjoyment.
i. Enhanced mental health.
ii. Reduced stress and anxiety.
iii. Improved self-esteem.
iv. Greater overall well-being and happiness.
4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.
(a) What are some of the specialized fields in psychology that have developed over the years and what do they study? Which field you want to get into and why?
Answer: Specialized fields in psychology include:
Clinical Psychology: Focuses on mental health, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders.
Counseling Psychology: Helps individuals cope with life challenges and stress.
Educational Psychology: Studies how people learn and develop in educational settings.
Sports Psychology: Enhances athletic performance and mental well-being.
Forensic Psychology: Applies psychology to the legal system, including criminal profiling.
I’m an AI language model and don’t pursue a career, but if you’re considering psychology, it’s essential to explore your interests and passions. You might choose a field based on your desire to help others, your fascination with human behavior, or the specific area that resonates with you the most. Each field offers unique opportunities to make a positive impact on people’s lives.
(b) What are the stages of creative thinking according to Graham Wallas and how do they relate to problem solving and mental set?
Answer: Graham Wallas proposed the four stages of creative thinking in his 1926 book, “The Art of Thought.” These stages are preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification.
1. Preparation: This is the stage where you gather information, identify the problem, and start analyzing it.
2. Incubation: In this stage, you step back from the problem and allow your subconscious mind to work on it. It’s a period of reflection.
3. Illumination: This is when the “aha” moment happens, and you come up with a creative solution.
4. Verification: Finally, you evaluate and verify the solution’s feasibility.
These stages relate to problem-solving because they represent a structured process of generating creative solutions. Mental set, on the other hand, is a cognitive barrier where past problem-solving strategies limit your ability to approach a new problem creatively. The stages of creative thinking help break through mental sets by encouraging a fresh perspective during the incubation stage, leading to innovative problem-solving.
5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.
(a) What is the effect of group size on group performance and behavior in group dynamics?
Answer: Group size has a significant impact on group performance and behavior in group dynamics. The effect varies based on several factors, but some general trends are:
Increased diversity of perspectives and ideas.
Enhanced creativity and problem-solving abilities.
Greater potential for social loafing, where some members contribute less.
Enhanced cohesion and cooperation.
Faster decision-making due to fewer conflicting opinions.
Reduced diversity and potential for limited innovation.
The optimal group size depends on the task and goals. Smaller groups are often more effective for intimate discussions and quick decisions, while larger groups excel in brainstorming and complex problem-solving. Balancing group size is key to effective group dynamics.
(b) Comment on the nature of the mind-body connection and suggest at least three ways to maintain a healthy mind-body connection
Answer: The mind-body connection is the intricate relationship between our mental and physical well-being. It’s a dynamic interplay where the state of one significantly affects the other. To maintain a healthy mind-body connection:
Regular Exercise: Physical activity releases endorphins, reducing stress and promoting mental clarity.
Mindfulness and Meditation: Practices that enhance self-awareness and reduce anxiety, fostering a balanced mind.
Nutrition: A well-balanced diet provides the necessary nutrients for optimal brain function and emotional stability.
Cultivating this connection involves recognizing the profound impact our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors have on our physical health, emphasizing the need for holistic well-being through the harmonious integration of mind and body.
6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:
(a) How does the process of recognition differ from the process of recall in measuring retention and what implications do these differences have for real-life situations, such as studying for exams or identifying familiar faces? Conduct an experiment on at least 20people by providing different situations to remember, then observe and write if they passed or failed to recognize, recall and remember after 7-10 days. For example conducting
experiment on five different situation on 20 people and noting if they can remember the number, face, place, colour or position and how.
Answer: Project Title: A Study on Recognition vs. Recall in Measuring Retention
Objective: To explore the differences between recognition and recall and their implications in real-life situations.
20 or more participants
Study materials (e.g., a list of words, images, or faces)
A quiet room for testing
Notebooks and pens for participants
Data recording sheets
Provide participants with a list of 20 words (or images/faces) to study for a specific duration (e.g., 2 minutes).
After the study period, collect the study materials and have participants engage in a distractor task (e.g., solving puzzles) for a few minutes.
2. Recognition Test (1 day after pre-test):
Present participants with a list of 40 words (20 studied, 20 new) and ask them to identify the words they studied.
Record the number of correctly recognized words.
3. Recall Test (1 day after the recognition test):
Ask participants to write down as many words as they can remember from the initial list without any cues.
Record the number of correctly recalled words.
4. Follow-up Tests (7-10 days after pre-test):
Conduct the same recognition and recall tests as before.
Record the number of correctly recognized and recalled words.
Analyze the data to compare the performance of participants in recognition and recall tests on the first day and the follow-up tests.
Evaluate the results to understand the differences between recognition and recall in measuring retention.
Discuss the implications for real-life situations, such as studying for exams or identifying familiar faces.
Summarize the findings and their significance in understanding memory retention.
This experiment will help you observe how recognition and recall differ in measuring retention and provide insights into their implications in practical scenarios.
(b) In your residential area, a yoga camp is being organized. You are invited as a speaker to spread awareness on the aspect of “importance of controlling and regulating the mind”. Prepare a speech for the given topic such that it is informative and easy to understand by all sections of the society.
Answer: Title: The Power of Mind Control in Yoga
Ladies and gentlemen,
Namaste to all of you. I’m truly honored to be here today to discuss a topic of great significance – the importance of controlling and regulating the mind, especially in the context of yoga.
The mind is a powerful tool; it can be our best friend or our worst enemy.
In yoga, the control of the mind is at the core of achieving a balanced and healthy life.
Understanding the Mind
Our minds are constantly bombarded with thoughts, emotions, and distractions.
Uncontrolled, it can lead to stress, anxiety, and a chaotic life.
The Benefits of Mind Control
Mind control is the path to inner peace, reducing stress, and enhancing mental clarity.
It empowers us to make better life choices and form harmonious relationships.
In yoga, we practice mindfulness, meditation, and breathing exercises to gain mastery over our minds.
These techniques help us detach from negative thoughts and reactions.
Mind control is not limited to the yoga mat; it transforms how we handle daily challenges.
It enables us to respond calmly to situations rather than reacting impulsively.
The power of controlling and regulating the mind is the essence of yoga.
Embrace these practices to achieve mental peace, physical well-being, and a happier life.
Let’s take the first step towards a harmonious mind, for it is the key to a fulfilled life. Thank you for your attention. Namaste.