NIOS Class 10th Social Science (213): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024

(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrolment numbers, Al name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) Identify the main reasons for the decline of the Harappa Civilization. Explain

Answer: The decline of the Harappa Civilization was likely due to several factors:

(i) Environmental Changes: Shifts in climate, including decreased rainfall, made farming more challenging.

(ii) River Drying: The Indus River, vital for agriculture and trade, may have changed its course.

(iii) Natural Disasters: Frequent floods and earthquakes disrupted daily life.

(iv) Decline in Trade: Reduced connections with other regions affected the economy.

(v) Social and Political Problems: Possible conflicts or changes in leadership may have weakened the society.

(b) In the sphere of religion and culture, the Medieval Period witnessed a great synthesis of traditions. Analyze the statement.

Answer: During the Medieval Period:

(i) Fusion of Traditions: Different religious and cultural influences blended.

(ii) Religious Harmony: Tolerance allowed coexistence of various faiths like Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism.

(iii) Architectural Marvels: Syncretic architectural styles emerged, seen in structures like the Qutub Minar.

(iv) Literary Works: Texts like Akbar’s Din-i Ilahi promoted interfaith understanding.

(v) Art and Music: A rich mix of artistic forms and music genres reflected this synthesis.

2. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words..

(a) Suggest any two ways to conserve biodiversity of your area.

Answer: (i) Reforestation: Planting native trees in deforested areas helps restore habitats and supports local wildlife.

(ii) Wildlife Sanctuaries: Establishing protected areas where human activities are restricted can safeguard diverse species and their ecosystems, promoting biodiversity conservation.

These actions create a balance between human needs and nature’s well-being while preserving the local environment and its inhabitants.

(b) ‘The adolescents need to be treated as a distinct population group. Justify the statement.

Answer: Adolescents deserve special attention because they experience unique physical, emotional, and social changes. Their brains are still developing, impacting decision-making. They face challenges like peer pressure, identity formation, and education choices.

Addressing their distinct needs, such as mental health support and education, can help them navigate these critical years successfully and become responsible adults.

3. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) Fundamental duties are equally important as fundamental rights. Examine.

Answer: (i) Unique Needs: Adolescents have different physical, emotional, and psychological needs compared to children and adults.

(ii) Rapid Development: They undergo significant changes in body and mind during this phase, requiring specialized support.

(iii) Identity Formation: Adolescents are forming their identities and need guidance.

(iv) Peer Pressure: They face unique challenges related to peer pressure and social interactions.

(v) Education: Tailoring education and healthcare to their needs is essential for their overall development.

(vi) Legal Rights: Recognizing their distinct needs also involves acknowledging their legal rights and responsibilities.

(b) How sustainable development can be a tool to counter Environmental Degradation? Explain:

Answer: Sustainable development focuses on balancing human needs with environmental protection. It helps by:

(i) Conservation: Preserving natural resources like forests and water.

(ii) Renewable Energy: Using sources like solar and wind power to reduce pollution.

(iii) Recycling: Reusing materials to reduce waste.

(iv) Green Technology: Inventing eco-friendly solutions.

(v) Education: Spreading awareness about environmental issues for a better future.

4. Answer any one the following question in about 100-150 words.

(a) “Geography plays an important role in shaping the life and history of any society’. Examine.

Answer: Geography significantly influences a society’s development and history. The physical features of a region, such as mountains, rivers, and climate, impact how people live. Access to water sources can determine settlement patterns, while fertile soil affects agriculture.

Geography influences trade routes, leading to cultural exchanges and economic growth. Additionally, geographical barriers, like oceans or deserts, can isolate or protect a society.

Landforms and natural resources also impact a nation’s economic power and strategic importance. Overall, geography shapes a society’s lifestyle, trade, culture, and even its ability to defend itself, making it a fundamental factor in the course of human history.

(b) Identify any four challenges faced by farmers in your neighbouring areas. Suggest solutions, one for each of these challenges to improve the condition of farmers.

Answer: Farmers in neighboring areas face several challenges:

(i) Erratic Weather Patterns: Climate change leads to unpredictable rainfall and temperature fluctuations, impacting crop yields. Solution: Promoting drought-resistant crop varieties and efficient irrigation systems can mitigate the effects of erratic weather.

(ii) Lack of Access to Credit: Many farmers struggle to secure loans for seeds, equipment, and fertilizers. Solution: Government-backed microfinance schemes and rural credit cooperatives can provide affordable financial support to farmers.

(iii) Market Access and Price Fluctuations: Limited market access and price volatility affect farmers’ income. Solution: Developing better transportation infrastructure and creating farmers’ cooperatives can help them access broader markets and negotiate better prices.

(iv) Pests and Diseases: Crop diseases and pests can devastate yields. Solution: Integrated pest management techniques and educating farmers on preventive measures can reduce the impact of pests and diseases.

These solutions can improve the condition of farmers by enhancing their resilience and income, ultimately contributing to food security and rural development.

5. Answer any one the following question in about 100-150 words.

(a) Examine the role and responsibilities of rural local self-government in the three tier structure.

Answer: Rural local self-government in the three-tier structure, which includes Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis, and Zila Parishads, plays a crucial role in local governance and development:

(i) Gram Panchayats: These are at the village level, responsible for local administration, infrastructure, and social services. They manage schools, healthcare, and local development projects.

(ii) Panchayat Samitis: Operating at the block level, they coordinate development activities in multiple villages, implement government schemes, and manage resources efficiently.

(ii) Zila Parishads: At the district level, they oversee inter-block development, planning, and resource allocation, ensuring balanced growth.

These rural local bodies are responsible for grassroots governance, poverty alleviation, and rural development, making them integral to India’s decentralized governance system.

(b) Analyze the need of secular principles for establishing a strong Nation.

Answer: Secular principles are essential for building a robust nation for several reasons:

(i) Religious Diversity: A nation often consists of people from various faiths. Secularism ensures that no particular religion dominates, promoting unity among different religious communities.

(ii) Equality: Secularism upholds the principle of equality, allowing all citizens to have equal rights and opportunities regardless of their religious beliefs. This fosters social harmony and inclusivity.

(iii) Peace and Stability: By keeping religion separate from politics, secularism reduces the chances of religious conflicts, which can destabilize a nation.

(iv) Development: A secular state can focus on economic and social development without religious biases, contributing to the nation’s progress.

Incorporating secular principles in governance is crucial for fostering a strong, united, and harmonious nation.