NIOS Class 12th Environmental Science. (333): NIOS TMA Solutio

NIOS Solved TMA 2024


All(i) questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given at same place.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment number, Al name and subject on the top of the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Explain that environment contains both biotic and abiotic components.

Answer- The environment is the natural world around us, comprising both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) elements. Biotic components include plants, animals, and microorganisms, while abiotic components encompass air, water, soil, and temperature. These elements interact and depend on each other, shaping ecosystems and sustaining life. Understanding this balance is crucial for protecting our planet and its diverse ecosystems.

(b) “There is an increased importance given to biological methods for crop protection by the farmers instead of chemicals.” Justify this statement with the help of an example.

Answer-Farmers are increasingly focusing on biological methods for crop protection over chemicals due to their eco-friendly and sustainable nature. For example, they use beneficial insects like ladybugs to control pests in their fields instead of pesticides. These insects naturally keep pest populations in check, reducing the need for chemical inputs. This approach not only safeguards the environment but also ensures healthier and safer food production.

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) How can you explain the nanotechnology for the use of mankind?

Answer- Nanotechnology is like working with incredibly tiny building blocks at the nanoscale, one billionth of a meter. Scientists use these tiny particles to create new materials and devices that can revolutionize medicine, electronics, and more. It’s like building with super-small Lego bricks to make amazing things for a better future!

(b) Does Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Govt. of India (formerly Ministry of Environment and Forest) play a very crucial role towards to benefit of Environment? If yes, give reasons in support of your answer.

Answer- Yes, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in India plays a crucial role in benefiting the environment. They formulate and implement policies, regulations, and conservation efforts to protect natural resources, wildlife, and combat climate change. Their work contributes to maintaining a healthy environment, conserving biodiversity, and addressing climate challenges, which are essential for a sustainable future.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Suppose your father is a farmer, he wants to enhance his crop yield as well as income with the help of modern agricultural practices. Suggest some modern practices for increasing his crop yield and income also.

Answer- Certainly! To enhance crop yield and income, your father can adopt modern agricultural practices like:

  1. Precision Farming: Using technology for precise irrigation and fertilization.
  2. Crop Rotation: Alternating different crops to prevent soil depletion.
  3. Improved Seed Varieties: Planting high-yield, disease-resistant seeds.
  4. Organic Farming: Reducing chemical inputs for healthier produce.
  5. Pest Management: Implementing integrated pest management techniques.
  6. Market Research: Identifying profitable crops and markets for better income.

These practices can lead to increased crop yield and higher income.

(b) How can we achieve the goal of minimizing waste? Explain in Brief.

Answer- Minimizing waste is crucial for a sustainable future. You can start by reducing, reusing, and recycling items. Avoid single-use plastics, and opt for eco-friendly products. Composting organic waste helps too. Spread awareness about waste reduction, and support policies that promote recycling and responsible consumption. Small changes by individuals like you can make a big difference in reducing waste and conserving resources.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 – 150 words.

(a) Your mother was reading the morning newspaper. She came across the news that 15 persons were killed by crash of bus with Truck. She asked you how to avoid such kind of road accidents. Suggest any four safety measures to avoid such road accidents

Answer- It’s great that you’re thinking about road safety, and I’m happy to help you with this. To avoid road accidents like the one your mother read about, it’s important to follow safety measures diligently. Here are four important safety measures to consider:

  1. Defensive Driving: Defensive driving means always being aware of your surroundings while driving. Maintain a safe following distance from the vehicle in front, obey speed limits, and anticipate the actions of other drivers.
  2. Seat Belt Usage: Ensure that everyone in the vehicle, including passengers in the back seat, wears seat belts at all times. Seat belts greatly reduce the risk of injury in accidents.
  3. Avoid Distractions: Stay focused on the road. Avoid using your phone, adjusting the radio, or engaging in any distracting activities while driving. Distracted driving is a leading cause of accidents.
  4. Regular Vehicle Maintenance: Properly maintaining your vehicle is crucial. Ensure that brakes, tires, lights, and other essential components are in good working condition to prevent mechanical failures that can lead to accidents.

By following these safety measures, you can significantly reduce the risk of being involved in a road accident. Safety on the road is a shared responsibility, and it’s important to always prioritize the well-being of yourself and others when driving.

(b) Environmental Ethics is an idea that should be created in every citizens’ mind. What are the ways in which it can be done?

Answer- It’s wonderful to see your interest in environmental ethics at such a young age! Creating awareness of environmental ethics among citizens, including young individuals like yourself, is crucial for the well-being of our planet. Here are a few ways to instill environmental ethics in people’s minds:

  1. Education: Schools and communities can incorporate environmental education into their curricula, teaching the importance of conservation, sustainability, and the interdependence of all life on Earth.
  2. Role Models: Prominent figures and influencers can set examples by advocating for eco-friendly practices, inspiring others to follow suit.
  3. Public Campaigns: Governments and non-profit organizations can run public awareness campaigns to highlight environmental issues, their consequences, and the individual’s role in mitigating them.
  4. Sustainable Lifestyle: Encourage people to adopt eco-friendly habits like reducing, reusing, and recycling, conserving energy and water, and supporting sustainable products.
  5. Nature Connection: Foster a connection with nature by organizing outdoor activities, nature clubs, or community clean-up events to help individuals appreciate the environment.
  6. Personal Responsibility: Teach individuals that each small action, like reducing waste or planting a tree, can contribute to a more sustainable future.

By promoting these practices and encouraging discussions on environmental ethics, we can inspire people of all ages, including young individuals like yourself, to become responsible and environmentally conscious citizens. Your enthusiasm and commitment can make a significant impact in shaping a more sustainable and ethical future.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 – 150 words.

(a) Why do we consider ground water as suitable source of water supply in India? Mention its special features also.

Answer- Groundwater is considered a vital source of water supply in India due to several reasons:

  1. Official Source: Groundwater is officially recognized as a primary source of water supply in India.
  2. Fertility and Agriculture: Groundwater is crucial for replenishing rivers, lakes, and wells, providing water for agriculture, and sustaining groundwater-dependent ecosystems, making it a valuable source for irrigation and agriculture.
  3. Water Storage: Groundwater storage helps in managing hydrological cycles and mitigating the effects of droughts and floods.
  4. Drinking Water: Groundwater serves as a significant source of drinking water, ensuring access to safe and clean water for people.

In summary, groundwater is a vital resource in India, serving various purposes from agriculture to drinking water supply. Its management and preservation are essential to ensure a sustainable and reliable source of water for the nation’s growing population.

(b) Why do we consider petroleum as conventional oil or light oil? Explain in brief.

Answer- Petroleum is often classified as “conventional oil” or “light oil” based on its properties and composition. These classifications help in understanding and categorizing different types of petroleum resources.

“Conventional oil” typically refers to petroleum that is relatively easy to extract from underground reservoirs. It flows more easily and is less dense, making it simpler and cost-effective to drill and extract. Conventional oil is often found in porous rock formations, and it can be pumped to the surface with traditional drilling techniques.

“Light oil” refers to petroleum with a lower density and lower viscosity. It is characterized by its lower sulfur content and a higher proportion of hydrocarbons. Light oil is highly desirable because it can be easily refined into valuable products like gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel, which are in high demand.

These classifications are important because they help in determining the best extraction and refining methods for different types of petroleum, which, in turn, affects the cost, efficiency, and environmental impact of the oil industry. Understanding these distinctions is essential for the oil and gas industry and environmental considerations.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:

(a) Collect information about important legislative enactment related to environmental protection. Observe the various provisions and prepare a brief report on how they these provisions help in achieving the goals for which they are proposed.

Answer- One of the important legislative enactments related to environmental protection is the “Clean Air Act” in the United States. The Clean Air Act is a comprehensive piece of legislation aimed at improving and maintaining air quality across the country. Below are some key provisions of the Clean Air Act and how they help achieve their intended goals:

  1. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): The Clean Air Act establishes NAAQS for common air pollutants, such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. These standards set maximum allowable concentrations for these pollutants to protect public health and the environment.
  2. Emission Standards: The Act sets emission standards for various industrial and mobile sources of pollution. It requires industries and vehicles to meet specific emission limits, thereby reducing the release of harmful pollutants into the atmosphere.
  3. New Source Review (NSR): NSR is a provision that ensures that new or modified industrial facilities meet stringent emission reduction requirements. It encourages the use of cleaner technologies and best available control measures.
  4. Acid Rain Program: The Clean Air Act established the Acid Rain Program to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from power plants, thus addressing the problem of acid rain and its harmful effects on ecosystems and water bodies.
  5. Stratospheric Ozone Protection: The Act includes provisions to phase out the production and use of substances that deplete the ozone layer, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  6. Enforcement and Penalties: The Clean Air Act provides the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the authority to enforce its regulations. It imposes civil and criminal penalties on entities that violate its provisions, encouraging compliance.
  7. Research and Monitoring: The Act supports ongoing research and monitoring efforts to better understand air quality issues, their sources, and their impact on public health and the environment.

The Clean Air Act has had a significant positive impact on air quality in the United States. It has led to reduced emissions of harmful pollutants, resulting in improved public health and reduced environmental damage. The Act’s provisions provide a regulatory framework that helps achieve the goal of cleaner air and a healthier environment for all citizens. It also serves as a model for other countries seeking to address air quality and environmental protection issues through legislation.

(b) Collect the following information on the topic Pollution (Choose any one type of Pollution) and submit a brief reports along with pictures /illustrated data/ or any support material collected / prepared by you.

(i) Name of the pollution:

(ii) Sources of this pollution

(iii) Its ill effects on the Environment (Plants, animals including humans)

(iv) How can this pollution be reduced or minimized?

(v) Write your suggestions for reducing this pollution.


(I) Name of Pollution: Air Pollution

(II) Sources of Pollution:

  • Emission from vehicles
  • Emissions from industries and energy production
  • Non-point source emissions from agriculture and vegetation, such as ammonia and methane

(III) Environmental Impacts (Plants, Humans, and Animals):

  • On Plants: Air pollution affects plant vitality and photosynthesis by interfering with respiratory energy.
  • On Humans: Long-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of respiratory diseases like asthma and bronchitis.
  • On Animals: Air pollution can harm wildlife and ecosystems, impacting both plant and animal life.

(IV) How to Reduce or Mitigate this Pollution:

  • Strictly adhering to pollution control measures, such as emission reduction and low emission vehicles.
  • Promoting clean and eco-friendly public transportation.
  • Increasing the use of pollution control technologies in power plants.
  • Reducing construction activities on roadsides and highways to boost plant growth.

(V) Recommendations to Combat this Pollution:

  • Organize educational programs to raise awareness and educate people about the harmful effects of air pollution.
  • Encourage the use of clean and environmentally friendly vehicles in public transportation.
  • Implement tree planting programs for the conservation of gardens and greenery.
  • Promote the use of clean energy sources, such as solar energy and wind energy.

Air pollution, which consists of gases and particulate matter, can have detrimental effects on our environment and health, and therefore, its management requires concerted efforts. It is a shared responsibility to control this substance for the benefit of us all.