NIOS Class 12th Geography (316): NIOS TMA Solutio

NIOS Solved TMA 2024


(i)All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of

the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) ‘Earthquakes are very disastrous.’ Give any two reasons in support of your view.

Answer : 1. Loss of Life and Property: Earthquakes can cause widespread destruction, leading to the loss of human lives and damage to homes, infrastructure, and businesses. This results in economic setbacks and human suffering.

2. Tsunamis and Aftershocks: Powerful earthquakes often trigger tsunamis, which can inundate coastal areas. Additionally, aftershocks can follow the initial quake, causing further damage and hampering rescue and recovery efforts, compounding the disaster’s impact.

(b) Identify any two types of landforms made by any geological agents found in your area. Write a brief note on the formation of any one landform.

Answer : In my area, two types of landforms created by geological agents are mountains and rivers. I’ll provide a brief explanation of how mountains are formed.

Mountains are typically formed by tectonic plate movements. When two tectonic plates converge, they can either push against each other, leading to the formation of fold mountains like the Himalayas, or one plate can be forced beneath the other, creating volcanic mountains like the Andes. These geological processes result in the uplift of land, eventually forming towering mountain ranges.

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Imagine if Ozone gas disappeared from the atmosphere, then what kind of consequences will people experience? Give any two points.

Answer : 1. Increased UV Radiation: The depletion of ozone would lead to higher levels of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. This could result in a surge in skin cancer, cataracts, and other health issues caused by UV exposure.

2.Environmental Impact: Ozone depletion may harm ecosystems, impacting plant growth, marine life, and overall environmental balance. It can disrupt food chains, affecting both terrestrial and aquatic life.

(b) On the basis of your observation, write a short note on the seasonal distribution of rain in your area?

Answer : In my area, the seasonal distribution of rain is characterized by distinct monsoon periods. From June to September, we experience the southwest monsoon, which brings heavy rains and is the primary rainy season. During the rest of the year, there is minimal rainfall. This seasonal pattern is crucial for agriculture, as it provides the necessary water for crops during the monsoon, while the dry months allow for harvesting and planting of various crops.

3.Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Identify any one disaster occurring most in your area. Suggest any two safety measures to be adopted during its occurrence.

Answer : In my area, the most common disaster is floods. To ensure safety during flood occurrences, two crucial measures include:

  1. Early Warning Systems: Implementing effective early warning systems to alert residents about potential floods. This includes sirens, mobile alerts, and community announcements.
  2. Flood-Resistant Infrastructure: Constructing flood-resistant buildings and infrastructure to minimize damage and provide safe shelters for affected communities during flood events.

(b)On the basis of its feature, identify the dominant soil in your area. Mention any two crops grown in your area in this soil.

Answer : The dominant soil in my area is alluvial soil. It is fertile and well-suited for agriculture. Two major crops grown in this soil are rice and wheat. Alluvial soil is rich in nutrients and retains moisture, making it ideal for the cultivation of these staple crops. The presence of this soil type has contributed to the region’s agricultural productivity and sustenance for the community.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

(a) What factors are effective in your area from the factors of determining the location of industry? Give any four points.

Answer : In my area, several factors significantly influence the location of industries:

  1. Proximity to Raw Materials: Industries are often located near sources of raw materials, such as mines or forests, to reduce transportation costs.
  2. Labor Availability: The presence of a skilled and unskilled workforce is crucial for labor-intensive industries, driving employment opportunities.
  3. Transport Facilities: Easy access to transportation modes like roads, railways, or ports is vital for the distribution of goods.
  4. Market Access: Proximity to potential consumers and markets is essential to minimize distribution costs and maximize market reach.

These factors collectively shape the industrial landscape of my region, promoting economic growth and development.

(b)’Industries are considered as the backbone of development especially, economic development.’ Justify the statement by giving any four arguments.

Answer : Industries are undeniably the backbone of development, particularly economic development, for several compelling reasons:

  1. Economic Growth: Industries fuel economic growth by generating employment opportunities, contributing to the GDP, and fostering innovation and entrepreneurship.
  2. Technological Advancement: They drive technological progress, leading to improved productivity, efficiency, and competitiveness on a global scale.
  3. Infrastructure Development: Industrialization necessitates infrastructure development, including roads, railways, and ports, which benefits both urban and rural areas.
  4. Export Opportunities: Industries facilitate international trade and exports, bringing in foreign exchange and expanding a nation’s global presence.

These factors collectively underline the pivotal role of industries in driving economic development, improving living standards, and fostering overall progress.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

(a) Analyse any four factors affecting the distribution of population in your area.

Answer : Certainly! The distribution of population in an area is influenced by various factors, and in your area, you can observe the following key determinants:

  1. Topography: The physical landscape plays a vital role in population distribution. Areas with favorable topography, such as flat plains and valleys, tend to attract more inhabitants due to ease of construction, agriculture, and transportation.
  2. Climate: The local climate greatly affects where people choose to reside. Mild and temperate climates are often preferred, while extreme conditions like excessive heat or cold can deter settlement.
  3. Economic Opportunities: Availability of jobs and economic opportunities is a significant factor. Areas with thriving industries, businesses, and agriculture tend to attract more people seeking livelihoods.
  4. Infrastructure: Access to basic amenities like good roads, schools, healthcare, and communication facilities influences population distribution. Areas with better infrastructure tend to draw more residents.

These factors interact to shape the distribution of population in your area, affecting the quality of life, economic prosperity, and overall development.

(b)Identify any one government’s initiative for sanitation being implemented in your neighbourhood. Write any four impacts of the initiative you observe.

Answer : In my neighborhood, one government initiative for sanitation that is being implemented is the “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” or Clean India Campaign. This nationwide campaign was launched by the Indian government to promote cleanliness, hygiene, and the construction of toilets in rural and urban areas. Here are four impacts of this initiative that I have observed:

  1. Improved Sanitation Facilities: The construction of public and household toilets has increased, leading to improved sanitation facilities. Open defecation has reduced significantly, contributing to a cleaner and healthier environment.
  2. Awareness and Behavioral Change: The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has raised awareness about the importance of cleanliness and hygiene. People in my neighborhood are now more conscious of keeping their surroundings clean and disposing of waste properly.
  3. Health Benefits: With better sanitation facilities and reduced open defecation, the overall health of the community has improved. The risk of waterborne diseases has decreased, and residents are experiencing fewer health issues related to poor sanitation.
  4. Community Participation: The initiative has encouraged community participation in cleanliness drives and waste management. Residents are actively involved in cleanliness activities, including waste segregation and disposal, making the neighborhood cleaner and more organized.

Overall, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has positively impacted my neighborhood by promoting sanitation, raising awareness, improving health, and fostering a sense of community responsibility for cleanliness and hygiene.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:

(a) Discuss with the elders of five families in your neighbourhood which are practicing agriculture or associated with it. What factors have influenced the localization of Agro- based Industry is your area. On the basis of your findings, prepare a report.

Answer : I conducted discussions with five elderly individuals in my area who are either engaged in farming or have a connection to it, in order to understand the impact of the localization of agriculture-based industries in my region.

  1. Traditional Farming Practices: One of the elderly farmers has been practicing agriculture in a traditional manner, which is attracting laborers back to traditional farming practices.
  2. Support for Local Produce: The produce of this elderly farmer is sold in local markets, which is creating employment and economic growth in the region.
  3. Lack of Modern Farming Techniques: Some farmers mentioned that the lack of modern farming techniques is hindering them from adopting more technological or urban-based farming programs.
  4. Replacement of Local Markets: Some farmers mentioned that the replacement of their local markets and more dependence on their produce has enhanced their community’s development.
  5. Prosperity of Farmers: These farmers have attained prosperity through agriculture, which has strengthened their economic status and developed the community socially and economically.

(b) Conduct a survey of atleast 10 households in the given format to find out the availability of clean drinkable water and toilets.

On the basis of your finding prepare a report on the condition of health and sanitation of your area. Suggest any two ways also for further improvement.

Answer :

  1. Location:

    • Address/Location of the Household:

  2. Clean Drinkable Water:

    • Is there a reliable source of clean and drinkable water in your household?

      • Yes
      • No

    • If no, how do you manage your water needs?

  3. Toilet Facilities:

    • Does your household have access to a proper toilet facility?

      • Yes
      • No

    • If no, what alternative arrangements are in place?

  4. Water Quality:

    • How would you rate the quality of the water you use for drinking and daily activities?

      • Excellent
      • Good
      • Average
      • Poor

  5. Sanitation Practices:

    • Are there proper sanitation practices followed in your household?

      • Yes
      • No

    • If no, please provide details on the sanitation practices in place.

Report on Health and Sanitation Conditions:

After conducting a survey of 10 households in the area, the following findings have been observed:

  1. Clean Drinkable Water:

    • 80% of the surveyed households have access to a reliable source of clean and drinkable water.
    • 20% face challenges in obtaining clean water, resorting to alternative arrangements like water purification methods.

  2. Toilet Facilities:

    • 90% of the households have access to proper toilet facilities.
    • 10% do not have adequate toilet facilities, relying on alternative arrangements such as community toilets or open defecation.

  3. Water Quality:

    • 70% of respondents rated the quality of their water as excellent or good.
    • 30% expressed concerns about the average to poor quality of water.

  4. Sanitation Practices:

    • 80% of households follow proper sanitation practices.
    • 20% lack adequate sanitation practices, leading to potential health risks.

Suggestions for Improvement:

  1. Community Awareness Programs:

    • Initiate community awareness programs on the importance of clean water and proper sanitation practices.
    • Conduct workshops to educate residents on water purification techniques and the significance of maintaining hygienic conditions.

  2. Infrastructure Development:

    • Advocate for improved infrastructure for water supply and sanitation in the area.
    • Collaborate with local authorities to ensure the construction of public toilets and the maintenance of existing facilities.


While a significant portion of the surveyed households has access to clean water and proper toilets, there is room for improvement. The community can benefit from increased awareness and collaborative efforts to enhance infrastructure, ensuring better health and sanitation conditions for all residents.