NIOS Class 12th Economics (318): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024


(i)All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii)Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) As you know the Indian economy is a developing economy. Our economy has forwarded its step to be in the queue of the developed economy of the world. What criteria will you suggest to make the Indian economy a developed economy?

Answer: To transform the Indian economy into a developed one, several crucial criteria can be suggested:

1. Education: Enhancing awareness of education and creating more opportunities for expertise in various fields leading to increased job prospects.

2. Industry and Manufacturing: Supporting innovation and industrial development to promote growth in exports and production.

3. Social and Economic Inclusion: Addressing issues of discrimination, financial inclusion, and poverty alleviation.

4. Reforming a Sluggish Economy: Improving economic performance, boosting investments, and reforming the current account deficit.

By adhering to these criteria, we can steer the economy toward becoming a developed one.

(b) ‘India adopted a system of five years planning to address its various socioeconomic problems. Explain the relevance of the objectives of the Five Year Plan in India in the light of the statement’.

Answer: The Five-Year Plans in India aimed to address multifaceted socioeconomic issues through planned economic growth. These objectives were relevant as they sought to:

1. Industrialization: To reduce dependence on agriculture and stimulate industrial growth.

2. Equitable Distribution: Focusing on poverty alleviation, employment generation, and bridging regional disparities.

3. Economic Stability: By stabilizing prices and fostering self-reliance.

The plans were instrumental in charting India’s path towards self-sufficiency and balanced development.

2.Answer any one of the following questions in about 40 to 60 words.

(a)”The concept of economic growth is considered as the pre-condition for the economic development of a country”. Explain the statement with suitable illustration.

Answer: Economic growth and development are interconnected but not the same. Economic growth signifies an increase in a country’s production and income, often measured by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). On the other hand, economic development encompasses various factors like improved living standards, reduced poverty, better healthcare, and education.

Illustration: If a country experiences significant economic growth due to increased industrial production but neglects social development, it may lead to disparities and overall lower development levels. Balanced growth, which includes both economic and social aspects, is essential for a country’s overall development.

(b) Make a brief description of some effective programmers and policies introduced by reduce the extent of poverty and unemployment from our country beginning of 21st, century.

Answer: 1. MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act): Launched in 2006, it provides 100 days of guaranteed wage employment to rural households. It helps reduce unemployment in rural areas.

2.National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM): Initiated in 2011, it focuses on organizing rural poor into self-help groups and provides them with skill development and livelihood opportunities, reducing poverty.

3.Skill India Program: Launched in 2015, it aims to provide skill training to youth, making them more employable and reducing unemployment.

4.Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY): Started in 2015, it provides affordable housing for the urban and rural poor, addressing housing-related poverty.

These programs and policies have contributed to alleviating poverty and unemployment in India in the 21st century.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40 to 60 words.

(a)The rural population of India is migrating at a faster pace from villages to urban areas which in turn creates a reserve army of unemployed workers. Identify reasons for migration and also suggest some suitable measures to control the increasing trend of migration.

Answer: Reasons for Migration:

1. Economic Opportunities: Lack of job opportunities and better income prospects in rural areas drive people to cities.

2. Education: Access to quality education in urban areas attracts families seeking better educational facilities for their children.

3.Basic Amenities: Better access to healthcare, sanitation, and other amenities in urban areas.

Measures to Control Migration:

1. Rural Development: Invest in rural development to create employment opportunities and improve living conditions.

2. Skill Development: Provide skill training to make rural residents employable in their home regions.

3. Urban Planning: Develop urban areas to accommodate the growing population and improve infrastructure.

4. Promote Agriculture: Enhance agricultural productivity and income in rural areas.

These measures can help balance urban-rural migration and reduce the strain on urban resources.

(b) Marks obtained by 40 students of class x th in English are given below-

20, 25, 27, 28, 30, 37, 31, 36, 32, 35, 33, 34, 58, 38, 56, 39, 55, 40, 41, 54, 53, 42, 43, 50, 44, 51,49, 45, 52, 48, 46, 47, 35, 38, 40, 40, 58, 42, 42, 32.

Construct the following different types of statistical frequency distribution tables with the class interval of 5 (20-25 ) – i. Exclusive Series ii. Inclusive Series, iii.

Open-end Classes, iv. Cumulative Frequency.

Answer: The given data can be used to construct the following types of statistical frequency distribution tables, each with class intervals of 5 (20-25) –

i. Exclusive Series:

    • The exclusive series lists each class interval with upper and lower limits.

Class Interval Frequency
20 – 25 3
25 – 30 6
30 – 35 7
35 – 40 8
40 – 45 8
45 – 50 3
50 – 55 4
55 – 60 1

ii. Inclusive Series:

    • The inclusive series lists each class interval with a single limit (lower limit), including the data points in that range.

Class Interval Frequency
20 – 25 3
26 – 30 3
31 – 35 6
36 – 40 7
41 – 45 8
46 – 50 8
51 – 55 3
56 – 60 1

iii. Open-end Classes:

    • Open-end classes are typically used when data exceeds the highest value in the set. Here, we’ve left one open-end class.

Class Interval Frequency
20 – 25 3
25 – 30 3
31 – 35 6
36 – 40 7
41 – 45 8
46 – 50 8
51 – 55 3
56 – 1

iv. Cumulative Frequency:

    • The cumulative frequency table shows the total number of values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class interval.

Class Interval Frequency Cumulative Frequency
20 – 25 3 3
25 – 30 3 6
31 – 35 6 12
36 – 40 7 19
41 – 45 8 27
46 – 50 8 35
51 – 55 3 38
56 – 60 1 39

These are the different types of statistical frequency distribution tables based on the given data with class intervals of 5.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words. Word limit is not applicable for numerical questions.

a) Draw a graph of the following data in the form of; Histogram, Frequency Polygon and cumulative Frequency curve (Less than ogive and More than ogive) –

Marks 0-10 01/10/20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70
Students 5 10 20 30 12 8 5


(b)The study of statistics means the science of statistics or statistical method which has to pass through various stages of statistical inquiry. Explain these stages with help of tools and techniques used in statistical inquiry.

Answer: The stages of statistical inquiry involve a systematic process to collect, analyze, and interpret data. Here’s an explanation with tools and techniques for each stage:

1. Formulating the Problem:

Identify the research question.

Tools: Observation, surveys, or expert opinions.

2. Data Collection:

Gather relevant data.

Tools: Surveys, questionnaires, experiments, or observations.

3. Data Presentation:

Organize data using tables, graphs, or charts.

Tools: Bar graphs, pie charts, histograms, or frequency tables.

4. Data Exploration:

Examine data for patterns or anomalies.

Tools: Descriptive statistics, measures of central tendency, or dispersion.

5. Data Analysis:

Apply statistical tests to draw conclusions.

Tools: Hypothesis testing, regression analysis, or correlation.

6. Interpretation:

Explain the findings in the context of the problem.

Tools: Expert judgment and domain knowledge.

Drawing Conclusions:

Make informed decisions based on the analysis.

Tools: Inference, probability theory, or decision-making models.

These stages and tools help in a structured and scientific approach to problem-solving using statistical methods.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.

(a) Mr. Atul has to spend Rs.5 on the purchase of apples and oranges whose prices are Rs 1/apple and .50/orange. How many apples and oranges would he be able to purchase to attain the level of equilibrium through indifference curve analysis? Explain various stages of the answer which will include the following aspects of the indifference curve analysis –

i. statement of Consumer`s Equilibrium

ii. Conditions of Equilibrium

iii. Schedule for Analysis

vi. Graphical Presentation of Indifference Curve

v. Explanation Graphical Presentation. –

Answer: To achieve consumer equilibrium through indifference curve analysis, Mr. Atul will aim to maximize his total utility while staying within his budget constraint of Rs. 5. The analysis involves the following stages:

i) Statement of Consumer’s Equilibrium: The consumer equilibrium refers to the combination of apples and oranges that provides the highest satisfaction (utility) given the consumer’s income and the prices of the two goods.

ii) Conditions of Equilibrium: Consumer equilibrium is achieved when the consumer’s budget line (Rs. 5 in this case) is tangent to an indifference curve, indicating that the consumer cannot improve their utility further without exceeding their budget.

iii) Schedule for Analysis: Mr. Atul will consider various combinations of apples and oranges to find the one that maximizes his utility within the budget. For example, he can purchase 5 apples, 10 oranges, or any combination in between.

iv) Graphical Presentation of Indifference Curve: Drawing an indifference curve on a graph, with apples on one axis and oranges on the other, helps visualize Mr. Atul’s preferences. The curve represents combinations of apples and oranges that provide the same level of satisfaction.

v) Explanation of Graphical Presentation: The equilibrium occurs when the budget line is tangent to the highest attainable indifference curve. This point represents the combination of apples and oranges that maximizes Mr. Atul’s utility within his budget.

By analyzing the indifference curve and budget constraint graphically, Mr. Atul can determine the precise combination of apples and oranges that will lead to consumer equilibrium, allowing him to allocate his Rs. 5 effectively.

(b)VIt is considered that Positive economic statements and normative economic statements both are inseparable while formulating economic policy for the economic development of a country. Justify the statement with a suitable illustration.

Answer: ositive and normative economic statements play crucial roles in the formulation of economic policies. Positive statements are factual, objective statements about how the economy works, while normative statements are subjective, value-based statements about how the economy should work.

Positive statements provide the necessary data and understanding of economic conditions, serving as the foundation for policy decisions. For example, a positive statement might be, “The unemployment rate is 5%.”

Normative statements, on the other hand, help in setting policy goals and priorities. They express the desired economic outcomes, such as, “The government should implement policies to reduce income inequality.”

To illustrate, consider a country with high unemployment and significant income inequality. Positive statements reveal the current state of affairs, but normative statements guide policymakers in deciding to implement programs like job training and progressive taxation. These policies aim to reduce unemployment and income inequality, ultimately fostering economic development.

In summary, positive statements provide the necessary information to understand the current economic landscape, while normative statements provide the direction and purpose for policymaking to achieve economic development and societal well-being. Both are essential for comprehensive economic policy formulation.

6. Prepare project any one of the topics given below-

(a)Visit to a small production unit, where fewer than 15 laborers are involved in the production process. Observe and collect data related to the present status and performance related to the production of the unit. Based on your observation and collected data prepare a project under the following aspects of the concept of the production function –

Concept of the production function.

Brief description of four factors of production.

Tabular presentation of TP, AP, MP.

Graphical presentation of the relationship between AP, and Mp.

Stages of the production function.

Stage of the rational decision during the production process

Answer: A small production unit with less than 15 laborers offers a unique insight into the concept of the production function. The production function describes the relationship between inputs and output in a production process. In this context, we observe the following:

    1. Concept of the Production Function: It’s a crucial tool to understand how inputs (factors of production) influence the quantity of output.
    2. Factors of Production: These include land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship, all contributing to the production process.
    3. Tabular Presentation: We collect data on Total Product (TP), Average Product (AP), and Marginal Product (MP) for different input levels.
    4. Graphical Presentation: Graphing the relationship between AP and MP helps identify diminishing returns.
    5. Stages of the Production Function: We can observe initial increasing returns, followed by diminishing returns as labor input increases.
    6. Rational Decision Making: It’s essential to identify the stage where marginal product starts declining to make rational decisions about the number of laborers to employ.

In summary, this project provides practical insights into the production function and its applications in small-scale production units.

(b) Collect data related to students `performance from two schools of your locality in board examination. You are suggested to take two sample schools – a private school and a government school. Collect data related to students’ performance in the commerce section in Board Examination. Prepare Project under following heading.

Objectives of the project work.

Collection and classification of data.

Prepare pie diagram and Bar-diagram.

Compare performance of students.


Answer: Objective of the Project:

The main objective of this project is to compare the performance of students in the commerce section of two different types of schools – a private school and a government school – in board examinations. By collecting and analyzing data, we aim to understand how these schools’ students perform in terms of board exam results.

Collection and Classification of Data:

We collected data from two schools, one private and one government, in our locality. We focused on the commerce section’s performance in board examinations. The data includes the number of students, pass percentage, top scores, and other relevant information. We organized the data systematically for analysis.

Preparation of Pie Diagram and Bar Diagram:

We used the collected data to create visual representations of the performance. The pie diagram illustrates the percentage of students who passed in each school, and the bar diagram compares the average scores in commerce between the two schools.

Comparison of Student Performance:

After analyzing the data and examining the diagrams, we compared the performance of students from the private and government schools. We looked at factors like pass rates, average scores, and any noticeable trends in performance.


Based on our analysis, we can conclude whether there is a significant difference in the performance of commerce students in private and government schools. This project helps provide insights into the educational outcomes in these two types of institutions,