NIOS Class 12th History (315): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024


(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are indicated against each question.

(ii) Write your name enrolment number, AI name, and subject on the top of the first the answer sheet. page of the answer sheet

1. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) Mention the limitations of Inscriptions as an evidence for constructing History.

Answer: Limitations of Inscriptions as Historical Evidence:

  1. Selective Record: Inscriptions often contain information that the rulers or donors wanted to publicize, neglecting other aspects of history.
  2. Language Barrier: Understanding ancient scripts can be challenging due to language changes.
  3. Biased Perspective: They reflect the perspective of the elite and ruling class, neglecting common people’s history.
  4. Fragmentary Nature: Many inscriptions are damaged or incomplete, making interpretation difficult.

(b) “Coins provides useful information regarding economic history”. Analyze the statement.

Answer: Coins and Economic History:

  1. Economic Transactions: Coins document economic activities and trade, showcasing monetary systems of their era.
  2. Cultural Insights: Coin designs depict cultural symbols, rulers, and historical events, shedding light on societies.
  3. Chronological Signposts: Minting dates help in dating historical periods and understanding economic shifts.
  4. Material Composition: The metal used in coins reveals access to resources and economic stability.

Trade Routes: Distribution of coins offers insights into trade routes and interconnections.

2. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a ) “Ashoka advocated a universal religion”. Examine the statement.

Answer: Ashoka’s Advocacy of a Universal Religion:

  1. Religious Tolerance: Ashoka promoted religious tolerance and supported multiple faiths.
  2. Edicts: His inscriptions emphasized moral principles over specific dogmas.
  3. Non-Forced Conversion: He didn’t impose a single religion but encouraged ethical conduct.
  4. Impact: His policies influenced India’s religious diversity and moral values.

b) Highlight the reasons for thousands of farmers committing suicide in the third world.

Answer: Farmers’ Suicides in the Third World:

  1. Debt Burden: High-interest loans and crop failures lead to insurmountable debts.
  2. Crop Loss: Climate change, poor irrigation, and pests result in crop losses.
  3. Lack of Support: Limited access to government aid and insurance.
  4. Psychological Stress: Farmers face mental health issues due to financial pressures.
  5. Social Stigma: Suicide can be a consequence of perceived failure and social shame.

3. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a ) Assess the policies of sultan Zianul Abidin in Kashmir.

Answer: Sultan Zainul Abidin’s Policies in Kashmir:

Sultan Zainul Abidin, also known as Budshah, is known for his enlightened rule in Kashmir. He promoted religious harmony, encouraged trade and industry, and fostered cultural development. His policies promoted tolerance, resulting in a harmonious society.

He also introduced land reforms, improved administration, and was a patron of art and education, leaving a lasting legacy of a prosperous and cultured Kashmir.

(b) Mahalwari vs. Ryotwari System:


  1. Ownership: In the Mahalwari system, the land was owned by the village community, while in the Ryotwari system, individual peasants had ownership rights.
  2. Revenue Collection: Under Mahalwari, revenue was collected from the entire village and then distributed among the landowners. In the Ryotwari system, revenue was collected directly from individual peasant households.
  3. Responsibility: In Mahalwari, the entire village was responsible for tax payments, while in Ryotwari, individual peasants were accountable for paying taxes to the government.
  4. British Intervention: Both systems were introduced by the British for revenue collection in India. Mahalwari was more prevalent in northern India, while Ryotwari was adopted in the south.

4. Answer any one the following question in about 100-150 words.

a) Examine the role of landed intermediaries in revenue collection during the Medieval Period.

Answer: Landed intermediaries played a significant role in revenue collection during the Medieval Period. They acted as intermediaries between the peasants and the rulers. These intermediaries, often local landlords or zamindars, had a dual role. First, they were responsible for collecting revenue from the peasants, ensuring that the government received its share. Second, they provided protection and administered justice to the local population, effectively functioning as local power centers.

While they facilitated revenue collection for the rulers, these intermediaries could also exploit the peasants, leading to widespread oppression and economic hardships. The system of intermediaries became deeply entrenched in the Medieval revenue collection process, shaping landownership patterns and social hierarchies in the region.

b) Is the gap between the rich and the poor increasing/decreasing today? Discuss it with your family and friends and write a note on it.

Answer: The wealth gap between the rich and the poor is a topic of significant concern today. Several points to consider include:

  1. Increasing Disparities: Many believe that the wealth gap is growing due to factors like income inequality, tax policies, and access to opportunities.

Technological Advancements: The digital age has created new avenues for wealth, but not everyone benefits equally, contributing to the divide.

  1. Government Policies: Social safety nets and progressive taxation can help mitigate the gap, but their effectiveness varies by region.
  2. Globalization: While it has lifted many out of poverty, it has also allowed multinational corporations to exploit cheaper labor, impacting income inequality.

Social Awareness: People are increasingly recognizing the issue, prompting discussions and calls for change.

The wealth gap remains a complex and evolving concern, with various factors at play.

5. Answer any one the following question in about 100-150 words.

a) How did colonialism influence the economic patterns and alter social relations in the 20th-century world? Elaborate in detail.

Answer: Impact of Colonialism on the 20th-Century World:

  1. Economic Exploitation: Colonialism had a lasting impact on the economies of colonized nations. It led to the extraction of resources, forced labor, and establishment of economic structures that favored the colonizers. Even after decolonization, these nations faced economic challenges, including debt burdens and unequal trade relationships.
  2. Social Disruption: Colonialism disrupted existing social structures by imposing new systems of governance and introducing foreign cultures. This often resulted in the erosion of traditional values and practices, as well as social inequalities.
  3. Nationalism: Resistance to colonial rule fostered nationalist movements that sought independence and self-determination. These movements reshaped the political landscape of the 20th century.
  4. Globalization: Colonialism contributed to the global interconnectedness of the 20th century. It facilitated the exchange of goods, cultures, and ideas between the colonizers and the colonized, shaping the modern world.
  5. Legacy: The effects of colonialism, both positive and negative, continue to influence economic and social dynamics in the 20th-century world, with former colonies dealing with the legacies of exploitation and the struggle for development and equality.

b) Analyse the causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire

Answer: The fall of the Mughal Empire in India can be attributed to several key factors:

  1. Aurangzeb’s Policies: Aurangzeb’s long and repressive reign weakened the empire. His policies, including religious intolerance, overextension, and heavy taxation, led to discontent among various communities.
  2. Regional Powers: Powerful regional kingdoms, such as the Marathas and the Sikhs, challenged Mughal authority and carved out their own territories.
  3. Economic Drain: The empire’s extravagant spending, coupled with European colonial powers siphoning wealth from India, led to economic strain.
  4. Administrative Decay: The empire suffered from administrative corruption and inefficiency, which eroded its ability to govern effectively.
  5. Foreign Invasions: Frequent invasions by Afghan and Persian forces weakened the empire’s resources and stability.
  6. Loss of Prestige: The loss of prestige and international standing further contributed to the empire’s decline.

These factors collectively led to the fall of the once-mighty Mughal Empire, marking a significant turning point in India’s history.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:

(a)India witnessed many battles for supremacy among the many states that came up after the decline of the Guptas between 750 A.D. and 1200 A.D. Still that period contributed immensely in promoting culture. Make a list of the contributions keeping the following points in mind.

Sr. No. Name of the king/ruler Dynasty Contribution in which field Name of that temple/art piece/literature etc.

Answer:Between 750 CE and 1200 CE, after the decline of the Gupta Empire, various states in India made significant contributions to culture and literature. Here is a list of some important contributions:

Sr. No. Name of the king/ruler Dynasty Contribution in which field Name of that temple/art piece/literature etc.

Krishna I, Rashtrakuta Rashtrakuta Cave Architecture Ellora Caves

Raja Raja Chola I Chola Temple Architecture Brihadeeswarar Temple (Thanjavur)

Various Rulers Vakataka Fresco Paintings Ajanta Caves

Al-Biruni Ghaznavid Literature Al-Biruni’s “Kitab al-Hind”

Harsha Harsha Literature Harsha’s “Ratnavali”

(b)To understand history as it was, it is important to study the sources of information. Do this project with the following guidelines.

(i) List at least three sources of information on your favorite ruler.

(ii) Add this information to the one which you already have in your Self Learning Material.

(iii) Also note down that this work done by you has added interest in reading more about this ruler. Would you like to do a similar study on another ruler?

(iv) Write two lines on why you chose this particular leader/ruler

Answer: Three sources of information on Emperor Ashoka:

  1. Ashoka’s Edicts: These inscriptions on pillars and rocks provide insights into his governance, policies, and promotion of Buddhism.
  2. Historical Texts: Ancient texts like “Ashokavadana” and “Divyavadana” describe Ashoka’s life, conquests, and conversion to Buddhism.
  3. Archaeological Sites: Visiting places like Sarnath, Lumbini, and the Sanchi Stupa, associated with Ashoka, can offer historical clues.

Emperor Ashoka was one of the prominent rulers in Indian history. He belonged to the Maurya dynasty and ruled from approximately 268 to 232 BCE. His original name was “Chandashoka,” but his later actions earned him the title “Ashoka the Great.”

During his reign, Ashoka extended his empire through conquests and adopted Buddhism as his primary religion. He is best known for his promotion of Buddhist values and principles. Ashoka’s edicts, inscribed on pillars and rocks throughout his empire, were instrumental in spreading his religious and social policies. These inscriptions, known as “Ashoka’s Pillars,” highlighted principles of peace, non-violence, and celibacy.

Ashoka’s rule had a profound impact on Indian history, and he is regarded as a great religious and social reformer. His legacy endures through the spread of Buddhism and the ethical values he espoused.