NIOS Class 12th Home Science (321): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024


(i)All questions are compulsory. The marks allowed for each question are given beside the question.

(ii) Write your name, enrolment numbers, AI name, and subject on the top of the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) After studying Home Science at Senior Secondary Level, one is equipped with many skills. Mention two opportunities using these skills for wage employment or self employment.

Answer- Studying Home Science equips one with skills applicable for wage or self-employment. Two opportunities include:

  1. Nutrition Consultant: Providing advice on balanced diets, meal planning, or working in wellness centers.
  2. Culinary Entrepreneur: Initiating a home-based bakery or catering service, utilizing cooking and baking skills for a self-owned business. These paths leverage Home Science expertise for professional opportunities.

(b) Because of urbanization, joint family seems to be completely vanish from our society. Do you think that joint family has advantages over nuclear family? Give reasons to support your answer.

Answer- Joint families have advantages over nuclear families. In joint families, multiple generations live together, fostering strong bonds, mutual support, and shared responsibilities. This provides emotional security, social interaction, and helps in the transfer of traditional values. Financial burdens are shared, leading to economic stability. However, it may also come with challenges like conflicts. Despite urbanization, joint families can still offer a sense of togetherness and support, making them advantageous in many ways.

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) List any four major characteristics of cognitive development in middle childhood.

Answer- Cognitive development in middle childhood, roughly from ages 6 to 11, is marked by several key characteristics:

  1. Concrete Operational Thinking: Children begin to think logically and understand cause-and-effect relationships. They can manipulate mental representations of objects and solve concrete problems.
  2. Improved Memory: Memory capacity and accuracy improve, allowing for better recall of facts and experiences.
  3. Language and Communication: Vocabulary and language skills expand, enabling more complex communication and comprehension.
  4. Metacognition: Children develop the ability to think about their own thinking, plan, and reflect on their thoughts and actions.

(b) Write two differences between fine muscular coordination and gross muscular coordination and support your answer with appropriate examples.

Answer- Fine muscular coordination involves precise and intricate movements of small muscle groups, often in the fingers and hands. For example, writing with a pen or playing a musical instrument like a piano requires fine muscular coordination.

Gross muscular coordination, on the other hand, involves more significant muscle groups and is associated with large body movements. Activities like running, jumping, or playing sports like soccer rely on gross muscular coordination.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Mention the names of any four personnel involved in housekeeping in a hotel or corporate office

Answer– In a hotel or corporate office, the personnel involved in housekeeping typically include:

Housekeepers: They are responsible for cleaning and maintaining the rooms or office spaces, ensuring they are tidy and presentable.

Janitors: Janitors handle general cleaning tasks, such as sweeping, mopping, and taking care of public areas.

Room Attendants: These individuals focus on cleaning and preparing guest rooms in hotels.Supervisors: Housekeeping supervisors oversee the work of the housekeeping staff and ensure standards are met.

(b) Design is a plan or a drawing produced to show the appearance of something before it is made. State any four factors you must consider while selecting a design for embroidery on a cushion cover/pillow cover.

Answer- When selecting a design for embroidery on a cushion or pillow cover, there are several factors to consider:

Color Scheme: Choose colors that complement the room’s decor and create a harmonious look.

Size and Placement: Determine the appropriate size and where on the cover the embroidery should be placed.

Theme and Style: Consider the overall theme and style of the room and select a design that aligns with it.

Complexity: Assess the complexity of the design to ensure it matches your embroidery skill level and time commitment.

These factors will help you create a beautiful and well-coordinated embroidered cushion or pillow cover.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

(a) A decision is selection of a course of action from alternative choices.”Justify the Statement with the help of an example by applying the four steps of decision making

AnswerStep 1: Identify the Problem or Decision: The problem is how to spend your weekend.

Step 2: Gather Information and Identify Alternatives: You gather information about various alternatives. You could choose to study for an upcoming test, go to a friend’s party, play a sport, or help with household chores.

Step 3: Evaluate and Select an Alternative: You evaluate each alternative. Studying will help you academically, but it may be tiring. Going to the party will be fun but won’t help with your academics. Playing a sport balances fun and physical activity. You decide to play a sport because it aligns with your long-term goals and offers enjoyment.

Step 4: Implement the Decision and Evaluate the Results: You spend the weekend playing a sport. It turns out to be a great decision as it keeps you active and refreshes your mind, allowing you to perform better academically the following week.

In this example, you identified a problem, considered alternative choices, selected the most suitable one, and implemented it. The positive outcome justifies the statement that a decision involves selecting a course of action from alternative choices.

(b) To achieve our goals with limited resources, we have to follow a systematic method. Briefly describe the four steps of management process with the help of an appropriate example.

Answer- The management process involves four key steps, which are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Let’s explain each step with an example:

Planning: Planning is the initial step where you set goals and determine the best way to achieve them. For instance, if your goal is to organize a school event, you need to plan all the activities, from selecting the event date and venue to deciding the budget and the activities to be included in the event.

Organizing: After planning, you need to organize resources effectively. In the case of the school event, organizing includes tasks like forming committees, allocating responsibilities, and ensuring that you have the necessary materials and volunteers.

Leading: Once the event is organized, you must lead and motivate the team to carry out their roles. Leadership in this context involves coordinating volunteers, ensuring everyone knows their tasks, and providing guidance and support.

Controlling: In the final step, you monitor the progress of the event. You compare the actual results with the planned ones, check the budget, and address any issues or changes needed to ensure the event runs smoothly.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

(a) On the basis of structure, yarns are classified into three types. Write difference between yarn and thread. Also describe the characteristics of all the three types of yarn with suitable diagrams.

Answer- Yarn and thread are both terms used for textile fibers, but they have some key differences:

Differences between Yarn and Thread:

Composition: Yarn is typically composed of multiple fibers twisted together, which can be natural (e.g., cotton, wool) or synthetic (e.g., polyester). Thread is a finer and thinner strand typically used for sewing and embroidery.

Thickness: Yarn is usually thicker and bulkier, making it suitable for activities like knitting, crocheting, and weaving. Thread is much thinner and more delicate, ideal for sewing and fine embroidery work.

Now, let’s discuss the characteristics of the three types of yarn based on their structure, with suitable diagrams:

Single Yarn (S): This is the simplest form of yarn and consists of a single strand of fibers twisted together. It is often used in hand knitting and gives a rustic appearance. The diagram shows a single yarn strand.

Ply Yarn (P): Ply yarn is created by twisting together two or more single yarns, known as plies. This structure enhances strength and durability, making it suitable for a wide range of applications. The diagram illustrates the twisting of multiple single yarns to create a ply yarn.

Cord Yarn (C): Cord yarn is formed by twisting together two or more ply yarns. It is even thicker and stronger, making it ideal for heavy-duty applications like making ropes. The diagram demonstrates the twisting of ply yarns to create cord yarn.

(b) In order to get a design on the fabric, dyes can be applied at different stages of fabric production. Briefly describe the stages of dye-application with suitable diagrams.

Answer- To obtain a design on fabric, dyes can be applied at different stages of fabric production, such as:

Fiber Dyeing: Dyes can be applied at the fiber stage, where the raw material (e.g., cotton or wool) is dyed before spinning into yarn. This process, known as solution dyeing, involves adding pigments to the fiber solution to ensure color uniformity throughout the yarn.

Yarn Dyeing: Yarn dyeing occurs after spinning, where the yarn is dyed before weaving into fabric. This allows for creating colorful patterns in the fabric, as different yarns can be dyed in various colors before being woven together.

Piece Dyeing: In piece dyeing, the entire fabric is dyed after weaving but before any further finishing processes. It’s a cost-effective method but limits pattern and design possibilities, as the entire fabric is dyed uniformly.

Print Dyeing: Print dyeing involves applying a pattern or design to the fabric’s surface using a printing process, often with the use of pigments or dyes. This method is suitable for creating intricate and colorful designs on fabric.

6. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

(a) Based on the interrelationship of food, Nutrition and Health

(i) Plan two messages for Nutrition and Health using poster and slogan as modes of communication for school going children on junk food.

Answer-Poster 1: Slogan: “Choose Health, Not Junk!” Design a poster with a vibrant, eye-catching image of a smiling, energetic child eating a balanced meal. Include images of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The message should highlight the importance of nutritious food for growth and energy and discourage junk food.

Poster 2: Slogan: “Fuel Your Body, Fuel Your Mind!” Create a poster with an image of a child studying, performing sports, and being creative. Surround the child with images of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Emphasize that good nutrition supports both physical and mental well-being.

(ii) Solar cooking has come up as an alternative fuel source for cooking Highlight on the pros and cons of solar cooking.

Answer- Solar cooking is an eco-friendly and innovative way to cook food. Here are the pros and cons:


Environmentally Friendly: Solar cooking reduces the use of non-renewable fuels and decreases carbon emissions.

Cost-Efficient: It uses free sunlight, saving on energy costs.

Sustainable: It’s a renewable energy source that doesn’t deplete resources.

Healthier: Food retains more nutrients and doesn’t produce harmful smoke


Weather-Dependent: Solar cooking is less effective on cloudy or rainy days.

Slower Cooking: It takes longer to cook compared to conventional methods.

Initial Setup Cost: Solar cookers can be expensive to purchase.

Limited Menu: Some dishes may not be suitable for solar cooking.

(b) Sixteen year old Nisha is often feeling tired and weak and has pale and yellowish skin. Mention four rich sources of the nutrient to overcome the symptoms. Also plan a recipe of a evening snack for her using the rich sources of the nutrient along with the method of cooking used. How your chosen method of cooking will help in the conservation of nutrients.

Answer- Nisha’s symptoms of fatigue, weakness, and pale, yellowish skin could be indicative of anemia, which is often caused by an iron deficiency. To overcome these symptoms, she should incorporate iron-rich foods into her diet.

Four rich sources of iron:

  1. Lean Red Meat: Beef and lamb are excellent sources of heme iron, which is easily absorbed by the body.
  2. Spinach: This leafy green vegetable is high in non-heme iron, which is plant-based and should be consumed with vitamin C for better absorption.

Recipe for an Iron-Rich Evening Snack: Lentil and Spinach Soup


  1. cup dried lentils
  2. cups fresh spinach
  3. onion, chopped
  4. cloves garlic, minced


  1. Rinse and drain the lentils.
  2. In a large pot, sauté the chopped onions and garlic until translucent.
  3. Add lentils and vegetable broth to the pot and bring to a boil.

Season with salt and pepper to taste.

How Cooking Method Helps Nutrient Conservation: This soup uses a cooking method that helps conserve nutrients. By simmering the lentils and spinach, we retain more of their iron content compared to other methods like boiling, which can cause nutrient loss. The addition of vitamin C from the lemon enhances iron absorption, making this soup an excellent choice for Nisha to combat her iron deficiency symptoms.