NIOS Class 10th Indian Culture and Heritage (223): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024

(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrolment numbers, Al name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) Examine the contribution of Sufi Saint towards the growth of a composite Indian culture.

Answer: Sufi saints played a significant role in shaping a composite Indian culture by promoting love, tolerance, and spiritual harmony. They transcended religious divides and emphasized the universal values of compassion and unity.

Their teachings influenced music, poetry, and art, fostering a rich cultural tapestry in India. Sufism’s impact continues to be felt, fostering a diverse and inclusive society where people of different faiths coexist harmoniously.

(b) List any two contributions of Baudhayan in the field of Mathematics.

Answer: Baudhayana’s Theorem: Baudhayana, an ancient Indian mathematician, is credited with formulating an early version of the Pythagorean theorem. His work involved the calculation of the diagonal of a rectangle in terms of its sides, which was a precursor to the Pythagorean theorem.

Geometry and Approximation of √2: Baudhayana made significant contributions to geometry, including methods to approximate the square root of 2, which was a crucial mathematical advancement in ancient India. His work influenced later mathematical developments.

2. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) Mention any two features that show the importance of spirituality in Indian culture.

Answer: (i) Diversity of Spiritual Practices: Indian culture embraces a wide array of spiritual practices, from yoga and meditation to rituals and devotional worship. This diversity reflects the importance of spirituality as it accommodates various paths for individuals to connect with the divine and seek inner peace.

(ii) Incorporation in Daily Life: Spirituality is interwoven into the fabric of everyday life in India. People often begin their day with prayers, offer gratitude through rituals, and celebrate festivals rooted in spiritual significance, highlighting the integral role of spirituality in their culture.

(b) Examine the contribution of Aryabhatta in Astronomy.

Answer: Aryabhatta, an ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer, made significant contributions to astronomy:

·         Aryabhatiya: He wrote the “Aryabhatiya,” a comprehensive astronomical text that covered various aspects of astronomy.

·         Heliocentrism: Aryabhatta proposed a heliocentric model, suggesting that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

·         Estimation of Pi (π): He calculated the value of π (pi) accurately, a crucial concept for astronomy and mathematics.

·         Eclipses: Aryabhatta explained the causes of solar and lunar eclipses, demonstrating advanced astronomical knowledge.

3. Answer any one the following question in about 40-60 words.

(a) ‘Sanskrit is the mother of many Indian languages.’ Examine.

AnswerSanskrit’s role as the mother of Indian languages:

Linguistic Commonalities: Many Indian languages share a common linguistic ancestry with Sanskrit.

Vocabulary and Grammar: These languages derive a significant portion of their vocabulary and grammatical structure from Sanskrit.

Literary Influence: Ancient Sanskrit texts, such as the Vedas and Upanishads, have profoundly influenced the literature and culture of India.

Historical Significance: Sanskrit served as a classical language for scholarly and religious purposes, fostering linguistic development in India.

(b) List the characteristics of Indian culture.

Answer: Characteristics of Indian culture:

a.       Diversity: Indian culture is incredibly diverse, encompassing various languages, religions, and traditions.

b.       Spirituality: Spirituality plays a central role, with a blend of different religious beliefs and practices.

c.       Family Values: Strong emphasis on family bonds, respect for elders, and joint family systems.

d.       Cultural Heritage: Rich heritage of art, music, dance, and literature.

e.       Festivals: A multitude of festivals celebrating religious and cultural events.

f.        Traditional Attire: Varied traditional clothing styles reflecting regional diversity.

g.       Cuisine: Diverse and flavorful culinary traditions.

4. Answer any one the following question in about 100-150 words.

(a) Justify the importance of reading/ understanding history to the younger generations of India.

Answer: Understanding history is crucial for the younger generations of India for several reasons:

Cultural Awareness: History provides insights into the diverse cultural heritage of India, fostering a sense of identity and pride.

Critical Thinking: Studying history develops critical thinking and analytical skills, enabling individuals to evaluate information and make informed decisions.

Lessons from the Past: History offers valuable lessons from past mistakes and successes, guiding future actions and policies.

Global Perspective: It helps young Indians understand their place in the global context and appreciate the interconnectedness of the world.

Appreciation of Progress: Learning about the struggles and achievements of the past inspires a greater appreciation for progress and social change.

Preservation of Heritage: History is crucial for preserving cultural traditions, art, and literature for future generations.

In essence, history provides a roadmap for the younger generation, shaping their values, perspectives, and contributions to society.

(b) Identify some major issues and problems of contemporary Indian society.

Answer: Contemporary Indian society grapples with several pressing issues and challenges:

·         Poverty and Inequality: Despite economic growth, a significant portion of the population still lives in poverty, and income inequality remains a serious concern.

·         Education Disparities: Unequal access to quality education, especially in rural areas, hinders the development of human capital.

·         Gender Inequality: Discrimination and violence against women persist, affecting their social, economic, and political empowerment.

·         Unemployment: High levels of unemployment, especially among the youth, pose a severe challenge to the country’s workforce.

·         Environmental Degradation: Rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to environmental degradation, including air and water pollution.

·         Communal Tensions: Communalism and religious tensions continue to disrupt social harmony and interfaith relations.

Addressing these issues through effective policies and social initiatives is crucial for India’s progress and development.

5. Answer any one the following question in about 100-150 words.

(a) Examine the role played by the Charvaka School in the growth of the philosophical knowledge.

Answer: The Charvaka school, also known as Lokayata, made a notable contribution to the growth of philosophical knowledge in ancient India by offering a unique materialistic and atheistic perspective. They challenged prevailing orthodox and religious beliefs with a rational and empirical approach.

Charvakas rejected the authority of scriptures and emphasized empirical evidence as the basis of knowledge. They questioned the existence of a soul, karma, and the afterlife, sparking debates and critical thinking in the philosophical arena.

While the Charvaka school didn’t gain widespread acceptance, their dissenting views encouraged intellectual discourse and enriched the diverse philosophical landscape of ancient India.

(b) Mention the main features of Harappan remains.

Answer: The Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley civilization, was one of the world’s earliest urban societies, flourishing around 2500-1500 BCE. Its main features include:

1.       Urban Centers: Harappan cities, such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, were characterized by well-planned streets and drainage systems.

2.       Writing System: They had a script that is yet to be fully deciphered, indicating advanced communication.

3.       Trade and Commerce: The presence of standardized weights and measures suggests a thriving trade network, with links to Mesopotamia.

4.       Agriculture: The Harappans cultivated wheat, barley, and cotton and had advanced agricultural techniques.

5.       Art and Craftsmanship: They produced pottery, jewelry, and intricate seals, showcasing their artistic skills.

6.       Religion: Evidence of ritual baths and figures of deities suggests a well-structured religious system.

7.       Decline and Disappearance: The reasons for the decline of this civilization remain a subject of debate, with factors like environmental changes and invasions proposed.

The Harappan civilization provides a fascinating glimpse into the ancient world, with its urban planning, trade, and culture.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:

(a) Medieval India witnessed the rise of two very important movements i.e. the Bhakti and Sufi movement. Do this project with the help of the following guidelines.

(i) Identify two saints from each of the movement.

(ii) Find out other saints with similar thinking along with their teachings.

(iii) Also write how their thoughts could have influenced the lives of the people during That time.

Answer: Project Title: Bhakti and Sufi Movements in Medieval India

Introduction: Medieval India saw the emergence of two influential spiritual movements, Bhakti and Sufi, which played a crucial role in shaping the religious and social landscape of the time. This project explores these movements, highlighting key saints, their teachings, and their impact on society.

v  Bhakti Movement: The Bhakti movement emphasized a deep, personal devotion to God, transcending religious and social boundaries. Two prominent saints of this movement were:

1.       Ramanuja (1017-1137 CE):

·         Teaching: Ramanuja advocated the path of loving devotion (bhakti) to Lord Vishnu. He believed in the equality of all castes and emphasized the importance of knowledge in attaining salvation.

2.       Mirabai (1498-1546 CE):

·         Teaching: Mirabai was a devotee of Lord Krishna and expressed her love for Him through poetry and songs. Her devotion was a symbol of breaking societal norms and caste restrictions.

v  Sufi Movement: The Sufi movement emphasized a personal, mystical connection with Allah and sought to reach spiritual truths beyond rituals. Two significant saints from this movement were:

1.       Rumi (1207-1273 CE):

·         Teaching: Rumi’s poetry and teachings emphasized the path of love, unity, and oneness with God. He believed that the divine could be reached through self-purification and love for all beings.

2.       Sultan Bahu (1628-1691 CE):

·         Teaching: Sultan Bahu, a Punjabi Sufi saint, stressed divine love and rejected external religious formalities. His teachings emphasized the importance of inner spiritual experiences.

Influences on Society: Both Bhakti and Sufi saints had a profound impact on medieval Indian society:

·         They preached messages of love, tolerance, and equality, which challenged rigid caste and religious hierarchies.

·         Their teachings inspired people to seek a direct connection with the divine, promoting individual spirituality.

·         These movements contributed to cultural diversity and unity by transcending linguistic and regional differences.

·         Bhakti and Sufi poetry and music enriched Indian art and culture, leaving a lasting legacy.

Conclusion: The Bhakti and Sufi movements were transformative forces in medieval India, promoting spiritual enlightenment, social harmony, and cultural richness. The teachings of saints like Ramanuja, Mirabai, Rumi, and Sultan Bahu continue to resonate with people, emphasizing the importance of love, devotion, and the pursuit of a personal connection with the divine.

(b) Collect information of atleast ten historical monuments, temples, sculptures, coins and literature. Make a small report with the help of the following guidelines.

(i) The time period in which they were built, written or used.

(ii) If it is literature then what was the subject material?

(iii) What more information do we get out of them of that period?

Answer: Certainly, here is information on ten historical monuments, temples, sculptures, coins, and literature, along with the requested details:

1. Taj Mahal

·         Time Period: Built between 1632 and 1648 during the Mughal Empire.

·         Monument: The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum in Agra, India, built by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

·         Significance: It reflects the grandeur of Mughal architecture and the deep love story of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.

2. Qutub Minar

·         Time Period: Construction started in 1192 during the Delhi Sultanate.

·         Monument: The Qutub Minar is a 73-meter tall tower of victory made of red sandstone and marble.

·         Significance: It represents the Indo-Islamic architecture and the victory of the Ghurid dynasty over local Hindu rulers.

3. Khajuraho Temples

·         Time Period: Built between 950 and 1050 CE during the Chandela Dynasty.

·         Temples: Khajuraho Group of Monuments consists of numerous temples with exquisite erotic sculptures.

·         Significance: These temples are known for their intricate art and architectural beauty, portraying a range of human emotions and life during that era.

4. Great Stupa at Sanchi

·         Time Period: Built in the 3rd century BCE during the Maurya Dynasty.

·         Monument: The Great Stupa is a hemispherical Buddhist monument with intricate gateways (toranas).

·         Significance: It showcases early Buddhist architecture and art and provides insight into Buddhist culture.

5. Ashoka’s Lion Capital

·         Time Period: Created during the Mauryan period, 3rd century BCE.

·         Sculpture: The Lion Capital is the national emblem of India, featuring four lions standing back to back.

·         Significance: It represents the pillars erected by Emperor Ashoka and symbolizes his commitment to Buddhism and dharma.

6. Harappan Seals

·         Time Period: Used during the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1300 BCE).

·         Artifacts: These are small seals with inscriptions and animal motifs.

·         Significance: They provide valuable insights into the script and art of the Indus Valley people.

7. Arthashastra by Chanakya

·         Time Period: Written around 4th century BCE.

·         Literature: Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, military strategy, economic policy, and political science.

·         Significance: It offers a comprehensive view of governance, economics, and military tactics during ancient India.

8. Rigveda

·         Time Period: Composed between 1500 and 1200 BCE.

·         Literature: The Rigveda is one of the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, consisting of hymns dedicated to various deities.

·         Significance: It provides insights into the religious beliefs, rituals, and culture of the Vedic period.

9. Indian Coins

·         Time Period: Various periods, from ancient to modern.

·         Coins: India has a rich history of coinage, with various dynasties issuing coins with unique designs and inscriptions.

·         Significance: These coins offer glimpses into the political, economic, and cultural aspects of the respective eras.

10. Ajanta and Ellora Caves

·         Time Period: Carved between the 2nd century BCE and 10th century CE.

·         Monuments: These caves contain ancient rock-cut temples, monasteries, and exquisite paintings.

·         Significance: They reflect the art, architecture, and religious practices of Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism over centuries.

These historical monuments, temples, sculptures, coins, and literature pieces collectively provide invaluable information about the art, culture, politics, and spirituality of their respective time periods. They offer a window into the past, enriching our understanding of India’s rich heritage.