(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.
(ii) Write your name, enrolment numbers, Al name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.
1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.
(a) What are the differences between Ahat Nada and Anahat Nada? Explain.
Answer: Ahat Nada and Anahat Nada are terms used in the context of sound in Indian philosophy. Ahat Nada refers to audible or struck sound, like musical instruments or spoken words. Anahat Nada, on the other hand, is the unstruck or inner sound, often associated with the cosmic sound or the sound of the inner self in meditation. The main difference lies in the source of the sound, with Ahat being external and Anahat being internal or metaphysical.
(b) Write the name of the starting Matra of the Tala and give an example where it is shown by the symbol.
Answer: The starting Matra of a Tala is called the “Sum.” It is indicated by the symbol ‘0’ in Indian classical music notation.
For example, in the Tala “Teentaal,” the Sum is represented by the symbol ‘0’ at the beginning of the rhythmic cycle. The Sum serves as the reference point for the entire Tala, helping musicians maintain the correct rhythm and timing throughout their performance.
2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words:-
(a) Write the main features of the Tala offered down by the musicologists of India which are still being followed by the practitioners of Indian classical music.
Answer: The main features of Tala in Indian classical music, as outlined by musicologists, are:
1. Fixed rhythmic patterns: Tala consists of a fixed number of beats grouped into specific patterns.
2. Recurring cycle: Talas have a repetitive cycle, which serves as the foundation of a composition.
3. Theka and Bols: Theka is the basic pattern of handclaps, while Bols are mnemonic syllables that indicate various beats.
4. Expressive possibilities: Tala provides a framework for rhythmic improvisation, enhancing the beauty of musical performances.
5. Precise time-keeping: Talas help maintain rhythmic discipline in music, ensuring cohesion and unity.
These features continue to be fundamental in Indian classical music practice.
(b) How many notes were used in the Vedic period in Indian music?
Answer: In the Vedic period of Indian music, there were three notes known as “Trik” or “Trita.” These notes were the precursors to the more elaborate and evolved musical scales and notes that we find in classical Indian music today.
The simplicity of these three notes laid the foundation for the intricate and melodic ragas that would emerge in later musical traditions.
3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.
(a) Why is it said that Svara has been defined as a creamy, and resonating sound that is capable of pleasing the minds of the listeners.
Answer: Svara, in the context of Indian classical music, is often described as a “creamy” and resonating sound because it embodies the richness and depth of musical notes. It’s capable of evoking emotions and connecting with the listener’s inner self.
Just as creaminess in food enhances its flavor, the resonating quality of Svara enriches the musical experience, making it soothing and deeply pleasing to the minds and hearts of the listeners.
(b) “Nada is the melodious sound that is obtained from a physical object, explain the statement.
Answer: “Nada” refers to the harmonious and musical sound produced by a physical object. It is the result of vibrations or resonances within the object. For example, when a string of a musical instrument is plucked, it vibrates and produces a musical tone. This melodious sound is Nada.
It is the fundamental element of music, forming the basis for the creation of different musical notes and tones.
4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.
(a) Write the ten elements of Tala. What is Tala Dash Prana?
Answer: Tala is the rhythmic framework in Indian classical music, consisting of various elements. The ten primary elements of Tala are:
1. Matra: A beat or time unit.
2. Vibhag: A division or group of Matras.
3. Laghu: A basic unit of a Tala, often composed of multiple Matras.
4. Drutam: A Laghu with 2 Matras.
5. Anudrutam: A Laghu with 1 Matra.
6. Guru: A Laghu with 3 Matras.
7. Pluta: A Laghu with 4 Matras.
8. Kakapadam: A combination of a Guru and a Laghu.
9. Tala Anga: A part of the Tala structure, like Laghu, Drutam, etc.
10. Tala Mukhya Anga: The main element of a Tala, which defines its structure.
Tala Dash Prana is a term used to describe the ten vital elements or divisions of a Tala, which collectively determine its rhythmic structure and composition. These elements are crucial for maintaining the rhythmic integrity and flow of Indian classical music.
(b) “In this system of teaching music, the innumerable give uses of notes and rhythm”, Name and explain the system.
Answer: The system of teaching music referred to here is known as the “Gurukul System.” In this traditional Indian pedagogical system, students live with their guru (teacher) and immerse themselves in the comprehensive learning of music. It encompasses various aspects of music, including notes (svaras) and rhythm (taala).
The guru imparts knowledge, not only through formal lessons but also through everyday living, where students observe, learn, and practice music in diverse contexts. This holistic approach allows students to grasp the innumerable nuances of music, enabling them to develop a deep understanding of the art form in a rich and immersive environment.
5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.
(a) Written in the thirteen century, Sangeet Ratnakar is also called Saptadhyaye’, write reasons.
Answer: Sangeet Ratnakar, written in the 13th century by Pandit Sharangdeva, is also referred to as “Saptadhyayi” for several reasons:
· Seven Chapters: The term “Saptadhyayi” translates to “seven chapters.” Sangeet Ratnakar is divided into seven chapters, each addressing various aspects of Indian classical music.
· Comprehensive Work: The text is an extensive treatise on music theory, covering topics such as ragas, tala (rhythm), musical instruments, and vocal techniques.
· Historical Significance: Sangeet Ratnakar is one of the earliest and most influential texts on Indian music, making it a pivotal work in the history of Indian classical music.
· Scholarly Contribution: Pandit Sharangdeva’s work continues to be a valuable resource for musicians and scholars, providing insights into the principles and practices of music during his time.
· Pedagogical Importance: “Saptadhyayi” reflects the organized and structured approach to teaching and learning music prevalent in ancient India.
Sangeet Ratnakar, or “Saptadhyayi,” remains a timeless source of knowledge and inspiration for students and enthusiasts of Indian classical music.
(b) What are the differences between Bol and Thaka?
Answer: In the context of Indian classical music, “Bol” and “Thaka” refer to distinct elements of rhythm and percussion.
· Bol refers to the syllables or mnemonic vocables used by percussionists (tabla players) to represent specific drum strokes or patterns.
· These syllables aid in learning and communicating complex rhythms and compositions.
· For example, “Dha” and “Dhin” are common bols used in tabla to represent specific strokes.
· Thaka refers to a specific stroke or hit on the drum, typically a stronger stroke.
· It is a physical action executed by the percussionist on the drum.
· Thaka may or may not be accompanied by a vocalized bol.
· It adds emphasis and dynamics to the rhythm.
In summary, “Bol” is the vocal representation of drum strokes, while “Thaka” is the actual physical execution of those strokes on the drum. Both are integral to the intricate rhythms of Indian classical music.
6. Prepare any one project of the following projects given below.
(a) Collect information and photographs of five famous singers of Hindustani Sangeet, then paste the Photos in A4 size sheet and write the information properly.
1. पंडित रविशंकर
Pandit Ravi Shankar was the king of Indian classical music and the most famous sitar player in India. In the 20th century, he was not only the most widely recognized but also one of the legendary musicians among Indian music maestros. His music has had a global impact as well. He received numerous awards and honors during his lifetime.
Who can forget the court of Mughal Emperor Akbar, where our very own Tansen was considered the foremost master of classical music? He was one of the Navaratnas (nine gems) in the Mughal Empire. In Indian culture, Tansen plays a highly influential and significant role, and we can also see his legacy in some of our raags like “Miyan ki Malhar.” Tansen is a revered name in our Indian classical music tradition. We salute our musicians who elevate our music to another level.
3. पंडित भीमसेन गुरुराज जोशी
Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi was one of the foremost vocalists in the Hindustani classical music tradition. He was honored with the highest civilian award of India, the Bharat Ratna, on November 4, 2008, recognizing his immense contribution to the field of Indian classical music.
4. अमर्त्य सेन
In 1998, Amartya Sen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics, and in 1999, he was honored with India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
Bhakti poet Ras Khan was born in the Vikrami Samvat 1635 (1578 CE). He hailed from a family deeply devoted to Bhagavad Bhakti. Born into a Pathan family, Ras Khan enjoyed both parental love and material wealth. Ras Khan embarked on a spiritual journey at the age of 45, while remaining immersed in devotion to Lord Krishna. Seeking darshan (divine vision), many yogis aspired to visit Nij Dham, where they could have the divine glimpse. Lord Krishna, the lover of His devotees, personally blessed Ras Khan and performed the last rites of this devoted poet, thus enhancing his glory. The grace and vision of the Lord is a rare privilege, granted only to a select few, and Ras Khan was one of them.
(b) Do you agree that a good quality singer should have good voice quality? Write the characteristics of a good singer according to different categories in the field of classical music..
Answer: In the field of classical music, the definition of a good singer extends beyond just having a good voice quality. A good singer is characterized by various aspects:
1. Voice Quality: While not the sole factor, good voice quality is essential. A singer should have a clear and melodious voice, capable of expressing emotions effectively.
2. Technical Proficiency: Mastery of classical music techniques, including control over swara (notes), laya (rhythm), and taal (beat), is crucial.
3. Emotional Expression: A good singer conveys the emotional depth of the lyrics, making the audience connect with the song.
4. Versatility: Versatility in singing different ragas, styles, and genres showcases a singer’s skill.
5. Innovation: The ability to bring a unique interpretation to classical compositions while adhering to tradition is admired.
6. Singing with Bhava: Expressing the bhava (emotions) of a composition is essential in classical music.
7. Stage Presence: Confidence, poise, and audience engagement enhance a singer’s performance.
8. Riyaz (Practice): Regular and dedicated practice is a hallmark of a good classical singer.
9. Understanding of Lyrics: Knowing the meaning of lyrics and their poetic elements contributes to a singer’s interpretation.
10. Adaptability: A good singer can adapt to different musical scenarios and collaborate effectively.
In classical music, the quality of voice is just one element of a multifaceted skill set that defines a good singer. Other attributes like technical prowess, emotional expression, and versatility play equally important roles.