NIOS Class 12th Political Science(317): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024

Note :

(i)All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii)Write your name, enrollment number, AI name, and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

a) Highlight any two differences between Politics and Political Science.

Answer : Politics and Political Science differ in the following ways:

Nature: Politics is the practical application of political principles and involves the exercise of power and authority, while Political Science is the systematic study of politics as an academic discipline.

Scope: Politics encompasses the day-to-day activities and decisions of government and leaders, while Political Science explores theories, structures, and historical context, offering a broader perspective on political phenomena.

These distinctions demonstrate that Politics is the real-world practice, while Political Science is the academic exploration of political systems and behavior.

b) Why United Nations cannot be called at state? Explain.

Answer : The United Nations (UN) cannot be called a state because it does not possess the key characteristics of a sovereign state. It is an international organization composed of member states, not a standalone political entity.

The UN lacks a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and the power to make and enforce its own laws. Instead, it serves as a forum for diplomacy, cooperation, and conflict resolution among its member states.

2.Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

a) Identify any four human right included in the Constitution of Indian.

Answer : In the Indian Constitution, four important human rights include:

  1. Right to Equality: This ensures equal treatment and opportunities for all citizens, regardless of their background.
  2. Right to Freedom: This guarantees individual freedoms, such as speech, expression, and movement, subject to reasonable restrictions.
  3. Right against Exploitation: This prohibits practices like forced labor and child labor.
  4. Right to Constitutional Remedies: This allows citizens to seek legal remedies if their fundamental rights are violated.

These rights collectively safeguard the dignity and freedom of Indian citizens.

b) Examine the importance of the Governor of a state.

Answer : The Governor of a state holds a significant position in the Indian federal system. They play a crucial role in the functioning of the state government by performing various constitutional duties. Some key roles of the Governor include granting assent to bills, appointing the Chief Minister, and ensuring the smooth administration of the state.

The Governor also acts as a link between the state government and the President of India. Their presence ensures that states adhere to the principles of governance and maintain constitutional integrity.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

a) Identify any two electoral functions of the ‘Vidhan Sabha’ of a state.

Answer : The Vidhan Sabha of a state in India serves as a vital institution in the democratic process. It performs various electoral functions, including:

Legislation: Vida

  1. an Sabha members participate in law making by proposing, debating, and passing bills that affect the state.
  2. Electoral Role: Vidhan Sabha plays a crucial role in the election of the Chief Minister, who is the leader of the majority party or coalition in the assembly. It also elects the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

Through these functions, the Vidhan Sabha ensures that the state’s legislative and electoral processes run smoothly.

b) Name all the subordinate civil courts in a district. Which one is the highest civil court in district?

Answer : In a district, the subordinate civil courts include:

  1. Civil Judge (Junior Division)
  2. Civil Judge (Senior Division)
  3. Additional District Judge
  4. District Judge

The highest civil court in the district is the District Judge. This court has the authority to hear cases of higher importance and greater complexity. It serves as the appellate authority over the decisions of the lower courts and is responsible for the administration of justice in the district.

4.Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

a) Analyse the role of caste in Indian Politics.

Answer : 1.Caste-based voting: Caste plays a significant role in Indian politics, with voters often aligning themselves with candidates from their own caste.

2.Caste-based reservations: Political parties implement affirmative action policies to secure votes from different castes.

3.Caste-based identity politics: Many parties use caste as a rallying point to mobilize support and gain power.

4.Caste-based conflicts: Politics can sometimes exacerbate caste-based tensions and lead to social unrest.

Caste influences political decisions, party affiliations, and candidate selection, making it a pivotal aspect of Indian politics.

b) Highlight any two aims of the World Health Organisation and two steps taken by it.

Answer : Two aims of the World Health Organization (WHO) are:

  1. Disease Eradication: WHO aims to work towards the eradication of various diseases, particularly infectious diseases. One significant example of this is the WHO’s efforts to eradicate smallpox, which was declared successful in 1980.
  2. Healthcare Access: WHO aims to improve access to essential healthcare services, particularly for marginalized and underserved populations. This involves promoting equitable access to quality healthcare, vaccines, and medicines.

Two steps taken by WHO include:

  1. Immunization Programs: WHO has initiated and supported vaccination and immunization programs worldwide. This includes programs for polio, measles, and various other vaccine-preventable diseases.
  2. Global Health Monitoring: WHO monitors global health trends and provides data and research to help countries improve their healthcare systems. They also respond to international health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

WHO plays a crucial role in coordinating international efforts to improve global health and respond to health crises.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

a) Assess the contemporary relation of India and the United States of America.

Answer : The contemporary relationship between India and the United States of America is significant. These two countries have strengthened their political, economic, and defense cooperation. They share common values, democratic ideals, and a commitment to freedom.

Bilateral trade and cooperation in the field of science and technology are also of great importance, contributing to their economic growth. Defense collaboration between India and the USA is crucial, particularly in the field of mutual security. Through these contemporary relations, both countries are working together to find solutions to their national and international issues, making a global impact.

b) Highlight any eight functions of the District Collector.

Answer : The District Collector, also known as the District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner in some regions, plays a pivotal role in the administrative hierarchy of a district. Their functions are diverse and essential for maintaining law and order, implementing government policies, and ensuring the well-being of citizens. Some of their key functions include:

  1. Revenue Administration: Collectors oversee land records, land revenue, and the distribution of agricultural loans.
  2. Law and Order: They are responsible for maintaining peace and order within the district, coordinating with the police and other law enforcement agencies.
  3. Disaster Management: In times of natural disasters or emergencies, Collectors lead relief and rescue operations.
  4. Election Authority: They supervise elections at the district level, ensuring a fair and smooth electoral process.
  5. Development Administration: Collectors implement government schemes and policies, focusing on socio-economic development.
  6. Tax Collection: They collect various taxes and fees on behalf of the government.
  7. Liaison with Government: Collectors act as intermediaries between the district and the state or central government, conveying the needs and issues of the district to higher authorities.
  8. Public Grievances: Addressing citizen grievances, conducting public hearings, and ensuring that government services are delivered effectively.

The District Collector plays a vital role in the functioning of a district, working towards the overall development and welfare of its residents.