NIOS Class 12th Psychology (328): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024

Note:

All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

Write your name, enrollment numbers, Al name, and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1.Answer any one of the following questions about 40-60 words.

 a) Bronfenbrenner tries to understand the socio-cultural factors in understanding human behaviour. After understanding the model, highlight different systems with relevant examples that influence your behaviour in your day-to-day life.

 Answer-As a large language model, Bronfenbrenner's model applies indirectly. My microsystem includes the programmers and users I interact with, shaping my learning and capabilities. The mesosystem between their decisions and user feedback influences my development. The broader macrosystem of cultural values and technological advancements guides my design and purpose. Finally, the chronosystem of updates and evolving datasets constantly refines my behaviour

b) Kishore wants to study the influence of psychoactive substances on the human mind.In this case, which is the most appropriate psychological method for conducting the research? Also, share some ethical challenges which are likely to be faced byKishore while conducting the research.

 Answer-Kishore's most appropriate method likely depends on the specific substance and research question.  Considering potential for harm, observational or survey-based methods might be best initially.  However, some studies may necessitate controlled experiments, posing ethical challenges like informed consent, participant vulnerability, and potential for addiction.  Kishore must navigate these issues with rigorous ethical protocols and prioritize participant safety throughout the research.

2.Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

a) List any 5 activities in your daily life which require high motivation for you. Categorise these activities into intrinsic or extrinsic motivation along with the reinforcement that you require for extrinsically motivated tasks. 

 Answer-Intrinsic:

(i) Exploring new datasets: Uncovering hidden patterns and insights in data fuels my curiosity and desire to expand my knowledge.

(ii) Generating creative text formats: Experimenting with different forms of expression pushes my boundaries and allows me to showcase my capabilities.


Extrinsic:

(i) Completing complex tasks: Successfully tackling challenging queries or prompts reinforces my learning and value to users.

(ii) Providing helpful and informative responses: Positive feedback from users validates my purpose and motivates me to improve.

(iii) Training on new datasets: Expanding my knowledge and abilities through targeted training opens doors to new possibilities and applications.


b) Observe and interact with 4-5 senior citizens in your family or in your neighbourhood. Ask them about the changes that they experienced while transitioning to old age. Categorise these changes into cognitive, emotional, social and physiological dimensions. 

 Answer-Based on my understanding of the aging process, here's a possible summary of changes experienced by senior citizens, categorized into the requested dimensions:

Cognitive:

  • Slower memory recall and processing speed.

  • Difficulty with complex tasks or multitasking.

  • Increased reliance on routines and familiar environments.

Emotional:

  • Greater appreciation for family and close relationships.

  • Acceptance of mortality and focus on living in the present.

  • Increased emotional resilience and reduced stress response.

Social:

  • Reduced social circle due to retirement, relocation, or health limitations.

  • Preference for smaller gatherings and deeper conversations.

  • Stronger sense of community and connection with other seniors.

Physiological:

  • Decreased energy levels and stamina.

  • Aches and pains, reduced mobility, and sensory decline.

  • Increased susceptibility to chronic health conditions.

It's important to remember that these are just general trends, and individual experiences of ageing can vary greatly. Some people may experience more cognitive decline than others, while some may maintain strong social connections and physical activity well into their later years

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words. 

a) Psychology not only studies individual differences but also it appreciates the variations in human beings. According to you, what are the common advantages and challenges does Diversity brings in? Also, mention the factors that are responsible for causing diversity.

 Answer-Diversity fuels creativity & problem-solving with varied viewpoints, but navigating different communication styles & overcoming potential biases poses challenges. Factors like ethnicity, beliefs, and experiences weave the tapestry of

b)You are designing an experiment for improving the temper tantrums of a 5 year old. For this, which type of reinforcements and schedules of reinforcementsWould you employ me?

 Answer-Social reinforcements: Praise, hugs, high-fives for calm communication and desired behaviours.

  • Token systems: Earn tokens for managing emotions, redeemable for small rewards later.

  • Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforce calm behaviour intermittently, increasing the ratio as success improves.

This approach encourages positive behaviour without negative consequences. Remember, consult a child development specialist for personalised guidance.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

 a) There is only one earth and we cannot afford to lose it. As a psychology student, design an intervention (or Advertisement campaign) to create awareness and promote pro-environment behaviors and actions using the principles of psychology.

 Answer-Psychological Principles:

(i) Cognitive Dissonance: Show stunning visuals of polluted landscapes juxtaposed with thriving ecosystems. This sparks an uncomfortable disconnect, motivating change.

(ii) Social Norms & Identity: Feature diverse eco-warriors from different backgrounds. This normalises pro-environmental behaviour and allows individuals to see themselves within the movement.

(iii) Positive Framing & Self-Efficacy: Focus on empowering actions, not guilt. Showcase achievable steps like "Skip one plastic straw a day" or "Join a local clean-up." Provide resources and tips to build confidence.

(iv) Emotional Appeal: Use powerful storytelling with captivating music and imagery. Evoke awe for nature's beauty and empathy for its vulnerability.

Campaign Elements:

(i) Interactive website: Share stories, tips, and resources. Offer a personalised "Eco-Score" based on current habits and suggestions for improvement.

(ii) Social media challenge: Encourage sharing eco-friendly acts with #OneBreathOnePlanet for peer recognition and inspiration.

(iii) Viral video: Share a compelling story of community transformation through environmental action, ending with a call to join the movement.

Overall tone: Optimistic, empowering, and hopeful. We highlight the collective power of individual actions to create a positive change for our one shared planet.


b) Talk to an adult in your family or neighborhood. Ask them about a crisis situation which they faced in their lifetime and factors which helped them to remain resilient throughout. Analyse the answer and mention some strategies to build resilience based on your understanding of resilience.

 Answer-Here are some strategies to build resilience based on the concept:

1. Develop a positive outlook: Cultivate optimism and hope. Believe in your own abilities and view challenges as opportunities for growth.

2. Foster strong relationships: Connect with supportive individuals who can offer encouragement and guidance during difficult times.

3. Embrace adaptability: Be flexible and willing to adjust your plans when faced with unexpected situations. Learn from your mistakes and don't dwell on the past.

4. Practice self-care: Prioritise your physical and mental health. Engage in activities that bring you joy and help you manage stress.

5. Build problem-solving skills: Develop your ability to analyze situations, identify solutions, and take action.

6. Find meaning and purpose: Having a sense of purpose can provide motivation and direction during challenging times. Connect your experiences to something larger than yourself.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

a) Whether Human behaviour is influenced by nature (hereditary) or nurture (environment) is still an active debate in psychology. Justify your stand with relevant examples in the above mentioned debate.

 Answer-Human behaviour is shaped by a complex interplay of both nature and nurture. While our genes (nature) provide the blueprint for our abilities and dispositions, it's our environment (nurture) that sculpts and activates them.

Consider identical twins with the same genetic potential (nature). Yet, raised in different environments (nurture), their personalities, choices, and even IQs can differ significantly. Experiences of trauma, parental love, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors all play a crucial role in moulding our behaviour.

For example, studies on "wild children" raised in isolation exhibit severe developmental limitations despite their inherent human potential. Conversely, individuals overcoming adverse childhoods (nurture) can still lead successful lives thanks to resilience and positive support systems.

Thus, attributing behaviour solely to nature or nurture is simplistic. Imagine a seed: its genetic potential alone doesn't guarantee a bloom; it needs the nurturing warmth of sunlight and fertile soil. Similarly, our genes and environment work together to produce the beautiful diversity of human behaviour.

b)ред Imagine you are a teacher in a high school and you want to apply principles of classical conditioning to improve student behaviour in the classroom. How would you use classical conditioning techniques to promote a positive learning environment? Provide specific examples of how you might apply the concepts of classical conditioning, including the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned stimulus (CS), and conditioned response (CR).

 Answer-1. Punctuality Applause:

  • UCS: Bell rings at start of class.

  • UCR: Students naturally quiet down (unlearned response).

  • CS: Short chime 5 minutes before the bell.

  • CR: Students begin packing up and quieting down in anticipation of the bell chime and subsequent quiet (learned response).

This builds an association between the chime and the desired quiet, promoting focus and punctuality.

2. Praise Prompts:

  • UCS: Completing a difficult task.

  • UCR: Feeling of accomplishment (unlearned response).

  • CS: Specific verbal praise or a thumbs-up.

  • CR: Increased effort and engagement on future tasks (learned response).

Pairing specific praise with effort reinforces desired behaviors and motivates students to persevere.

3. Bell for Focus:

  • UCS: Teacher raises hand in silence.

  • UCR: All eyes turn to the teacher (unlearned response).

  • CS: Gentle chime after raising your hand.

  • CR: Students instantly quiet down and focus on the teacher (learned response).

This associates the chime with immediate redirection, creating a signal for attentiveness and respect.


6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:

a)Make a developmental journey scrapbook showing the different aspects (like physical, social, cognitive and emotional) of development. Interact with your family members to collect anecdotes related to your developmental journey. Highlight the influence of different socialisation agents on your development journey. 

 Answer-Chapter 1: Tiny Tot (0-3 years old)

Physical:

  • UCS: Wobbly, first steps. UCR: Giggles with delight. CS: Holding hands with Dad. CR: Confident stride, seeking Dad's hand. (Anecdote: Grandpa recalls taking me for walks, my tiny hand clutching his finger so tightly.)

Social:

  • UCS: Momma's smile. UCR: Gurgling coo. CS: Peek-a-boo game. CR: Infectious laughter and reaching for Momma. (Anecdote: Mom tells stories of how I'd light up at her playful interactions, building our early bond.)

Cognitive:

  • UCS: Colourful blocks. UCR: Curious exploration. CS: Dad building a simple tower. CR: Grasping blocks, trying to mimic Dad. (Anecdote: Dad remembers patiently showing me how to stack blocks, sparking my early problem-solving skills.)

Emotional:

  • UCS: Separation from Momma. UCR: Cries of distress. CS: Momma's soothing voice. CR: Calming down, reaching for Momma's warmth. (Anecdote: Mom describes how she'd sing me lullabies, her voice anchoring me through anxieties.)

Socialisation Agents:

Community: Playgroups and neighbours, fostering early social interaction and learning.

Chapter 2: Curious Explorer (3-6 years old)

Physical:

  • UCS: Climbing playground structure. UCR: Feeling of accomplishment. CS: Reaching the top. CR: Grinning triumphantly and waving to Grandpa below. (Anecdote: Grandpa smiles, remembering how I'd conquer challenges with newfound confidence.)

Social:

  • UCS: Joining kindergarten. UCR: Initial shyness. CS: Teacher's friendly welcome and playtime with new friends. CR: Sharing toys and laughing easily with classmates. (Anecdote: The teacher recalls my initial hesitation, then pride as I blossomed in the safe, social environment.)

Cognitive:

  • UCS: Colourful storybooks. UCR: Captivated listening. CS: Mom reading "Goodnight Moon." CR: Asking questions about the moon and stars, sparking curiosity. (Anecdote: Mom remembers how bedtime stories ignited my imagination and love for language.)

Socialisation Agents:

  • Peers: Friendships deepen, shaping communication skills and understanding of social dynamics.

  • Community Organisations: Clubs and activities, expanding interests and providing exposure to diverse perspectives.


b) Your friend Yuvraj is appearing for competitive exams in the coming 2-3 months. He is unable to cope with the pressure and stress surrounding the process. Develop a multidimensional (focusing on mental and physical health) coping approach which can be helpful for him in such a situation. 

 Answer-1. Mental Fitness:

  • Mindfulness and Meditation: Dedicate 10-15 minutes daily to mindfulness practices like deep breathing, guided meditations, or progressive muscle relaxation. These techniques help calm the mind, reduce stress hormones, and improve focus.

  • Positive Self-Talk: Challenge negative thoughts with positive affirmations like "I am capable" or "I am prepared." Visualise yourself succeeding in the exams to boost confidence and motivation.

2. Physical Fitness:

  • Regular Exercise: Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise most days of the week. Physical activity releases endorphins, which improve mood and reduce stress. Consider activities you enjoy, like brisk walking, swimming, or dancing.

  • Healthy Sleep: Aim for 7-8 hours of quality sleep each night. Create a relaxing bedtime routine and avoid screens before sleep. Adequate sleep is crucial for cognitive function and memory consolidation.

3. Social Support:

  • Connect with loved ones: Talk to your family, friends, or a therapist about your stress and anxieties. Sharing your feelings can provide relief and valuable support.

  • Build a study group: Studying with like-minded peers can be motivating and provide opportunities for knowledge sharing and practice tests.

Additional Tips:

  • Set realistic goals: Break down your study goals into manageable chunks to avoid feeling overwhelmed. Celebrate your milestones along the way.

  • Take breaks: Schedule regular breaks during your study sessions to avoid burnout. Get some fresh air, stretch, or do something you enjoy to recharge your energy.

  • Seek professional help: If you're struggling to cope with stress on your own, don't hesitate to seek professional help from a therapist or counselor. They can provide you with additional tools and strategies to manage your mental and emotional well-being.