NIOS Class 12th Sociology (331): NIOS TMA Solution

NIOS Solved TMA 2024


(i) All questions are compulsory. The marks allotted for each question are indicated against each questio

(ii) Write your name enrolment number, AI name, and subject on the top of the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) What do you mean by when sociologist H.M Johnson stated that Sociology is cumulative? Explain?

Answer- When H.M. Johnson said sociology is cumulative, he meant that knowledge in sociology builds upon itself over time. Each generation adds to the understanding of human society. It’s like stacking building blocks; each new piece contributes to the growing structure. This cumulative nature helps us continuously deepen our insights into how societies function and evolve.

(b) Describe how norms are reflection of values?

Answer- Norms, like following rules or being polite, reflect values, which are our beliefs about what’s important. For example, if honesty is valued, a norm might be telling the truth. Norms shape our behavior based on these values, guiding us to act in ways that align with what we think is right and important.

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Which theoretical perspective stresses on the need for neutrality and objectivity in research? Describe its contribution in Sociology

Answer- The theoretical perspective that emphasizes neutrality and objectivity in research is the “positivist” approach. Positivism aims to apply scientific methods to study social phenomena objectively, free from personal bias. In sociology, it contributes by promoting rigorous, empirical research to uncover social patterns and laws, enhancing our understanding of society. It values facts over personal opinions, fostering a more systematic and reliable study of human behavior.

(b) Analyze the role of immigrants in the process of assimilation.

Answer- Immigrants play a vital role in assimilation, blending their cultural diversity into a new society. They bring unique perspectives, enriching the cultural tapestry. Simultaneously, immigrants adopt aspects of the host culture, fostering unity. This exchange promotes understanding and unity, making assimilation a dynamic, two-way process that strengthens societies.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.

(a) Comment on the contribution of Max Weber in development of Sociology.

Answer-Max Weber, a pioneering sociologist, significantly shaped the field with his emphasis on understanding social action and the impact of culture on society. He introduced key concepts like the “Protestant Ethic,” exploring how religious ideas influenced economic development. Weber’s multidimensional approach enriched sociology, fostering a nuanced understanding of social structures and individual behaviors, leaving an enduring legacy in the discipline.

(b) In your opinion, acculturation is a conscious or unconscious process? Justify your answer.

Answer- Acculturation is often a blend of conscious and unconscious processes. While some aspects, like adopting new customs, can be intentional, exposure to different cultures also shapes beliefs subconsciously. As a 14-year-old, you likely experience this as you navigate diverse influences, both knowingly and through daily interactions, contributing to your cultural identity in ways you might not always realize.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words

(a) “Suicide is an individual act, Suicide rate is not”. Justify the statement with suitable explanation.

Answer-The statement “Suicide is an individual act, suicide rate is not” underscores the complexity of suicide as a societal issue. While each instance of suicide is a deeply personal and individual struggle, the suicide rate reflects broader social, economic, and mental health factors that affect communities.

Individual acts of suicide are often influenced by personal circumstances, mental health, and individual experiences. However, the suicide rate considers the collective impact of various factors like societal pressures, access to mental health resources, economic disparities, and social support systems. High suicide rates indicate systemic challenges that extend beyond individual choices.

Understanding and addressing the root causes behind the suicide rate involve a comprehensive approach, including mental health awareness, community support, and societal changes. It emphasizes the need for collective efforts to create a supportive environment that fosters mental well-being and reduces the prevalence of suicide.

(b) Do you think that behaviour of vagrants can be changed? Write your answer with suitable arguments in favour of or against of it.

Answer- Changing the behavior of vagrants is a complex issue with varied perspectives. Some argue that with appropriate support systems, rehabilitation programs, and access to education and employment opportunities, individuals experiencing homelessness can undergo positive behavioral changes. Empathy and understanding are crucial in addressing the root causes, such as mental health issues and economic disparities, that often contribute to homelessness.

On the other hand, some contend that systemic challenges, including societal stigmas and inadequate support structures, make it difficult for lasting changes to occur. Moreover, personal choices and autonomy play a role in individual behavior. While external assistance can provide resources, an individual’s readiness and willingness to change are key factors.

In conclusion, a comprehensive approach that combines support systems with addressing systemic issues is essential. Creating an environment of understanding and compassion can contribute positively to behavioral changes among vagrants.

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100-150 words.

(a) How would you describe that the groups are formed to satisfy the needs of individual members?

Answer- Groups are like a human mosaic, each member contributing a unique piece to form a complete picture. Imagine a group of friends, each person bringing something special to the table—laughter, support, or shared interests. These groups are like safety nets, providing a sense of belonging, understanding, and companionship. It’s like a potluck dinner where everyone brings a dish, ensuring that the collective hunger of the group is satisfied.

Individual needs act as the building blocks of these groups. Whether it’s the need for friendship, understanding, or shared experiences, groups come together to fulfill these individual desires. It’s a symbiotic relationship; the group thrives because individual members find fulfillment within it. In a group, you’re not just an individual; you’re part of something bigger, and through this togetherness, everyone’s needs find resonance and satisfaction.

(b) India is a country of multiple diversities’. Justify the statement with examples.

Answer- India, often called a “country of multiple diversities,” is a vibrant tapestry of cultures, languages, and traditions. One striking example is its linguistic diversity. India is home to numerous languages, with Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, and Tamil being just a few. Each region boasts its own unique cultural practices, festivals, and cuisine. The celebration of festivals like Diwali in the north, Durga Puja in the east, and Pongal in the south exemplifies the diverse religious and cultural practices.

Moreover, India’s geographical diversity is remarkable, ranging from the Himalayan mountains to the coastal plains. This diversity extends to the rich flora and fauna, showcasing unique species like the Bengal tiger and Indian elephant. The historical diversity, with influences from various empires and civilizations, further enriches India’s tapestry. This kaleidoscope of diversities fosters a spirit of unity in diversity, making India truly exceptional and fascinating.

6. Prepare any one project of the following projects given below.

(a) Interview 10 boys and girls each in your locality who are going to school. Find out the opportunities given by their family members and educational support they are getting from government sources. Based on their response, make a comparative analysis of gender equality in educational opportunities for both boys and girls.

Answer- By engaging in interviews with 10 boys and 10 girls from my community attending school, I sought to understand their educational experiences. The conversations revealed that they are beneficiaries of dedicated families and positive school environments.

Many children shared that their families are committed to education, providing positive encouragement. Government resources, such as scholarships and free schooling, also contribute to their educational support.

Girls expressed that they now have increasing educational opportunities, with their families supporting them. While some boys acknowledged that girls are getting more opportunities, they also recognized the importance of equal participation.

This comparative analysis indicates that both boys and girls in this community are receiving support for their education, contributing to a positive trend towards gender equality in educational opportunities.

(b) Visit any 10 families in your locality and interview any of the family members who is well-acquainted with programmes in television. Based on the interview, write a report on the positive and negative influence of television in their family and community life.

Answer-Title: Impact of Television on Family and Community Life

  • Television is a prevalent form of entertainment in most households, and its influence on family and community life can be both positive and negative.

Positive Influences:

  • Education: Educational programs on television can enhance knowledge and learning.
  • Awareness: News channels provide information on current events and social issues.
  • Family Bonding: Family members often watch shows together, fostering togetherness.
  • Cultural Exposure: Television exposes viewers to various cultures and traditions.

Negative Influences:

Excessive Screen Time: Excessive TV consumption can lead to reduced physical activity.

Violence and Inappropriate Content: Exposure to violent or inappropriate content can negatively impact children.

Decreased Social Interaction: Excessive TV-watching may reduce face-to-face interactions within the community.

The impact of television on family and community life depends on the content watched and the balance between screen time and other activities. It’s essential for families to make informed choices and monitor television consumption to maximize its positive effects while minimizing the negatives.